[British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins—Caria, by B. V. Head, 1897.
Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinasiatische Münzen, 1901, and Zur griechischen und römischen Münkunde, 1908.]
In Caria, properly so called,—that is to say, in the inland districts,— there was no coinage whatever before Alexander’s conquest; and, on the coast, Cnidus and Chersonesus, Idyma, Termera, Astyra, and perhaps Caunus, appear to have been the only mints before the commencement of the fine series of coins of the Hecatomnid dynasty. In the Greek islands, on the other hand (Calymna, Cos, Rhodes, &c.), silver coins were in general use from very early times. The defeat of Antiochus by the Romans in
Alabanda (Arab-hissar), originally an old Carian town, was situate on the river Marsyas, about twenty miles south of its confluence with the Maeander. It is mentioned as one of the allies of Rome in the war against Philip V of Macedon, circ. B.C. 197; and about this time it appears to have struck tetradrachms and smaller divisions reading ΑΛΑΒΑΝΔΕΩΝ with obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos and magis- trate’s name in nominative case. After B.C. 197 Alabanda received the name of Antiocheia, in honour of Antiochus, who was for a few years master of the country, and, until his defeat (B.C. 190), its coins were inscribed ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ. After the battle of Magnesia, Alabanda re- sumed its old name, and, either immediately or about twenty years later, B.C. 168 (when Caria and Lycia were declared free by the Roman Senate), began to strike tetradrachms of the Alexandrine type (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1144-50), also tridrachms, didrachms, and octobols of the Rhodian standard (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. I. 7-9) with inscr., ΑΛΑΒΑ- ΔΩΝ, and obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos or Tripod in laurel-wreath. Bronze coins of various types are also assigned to this period (B. M. C., Caria, p. 3; Imh., Gr. M., 137; Kl. M., 104; and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 80). After a long interval Alabanda began once more to strike coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, in the time of Augustus, but its coinage seems to have ceased altogether after the time of Caracalla. A few speci- mens only bear magistrates’ names in nominative case with title Ιππαρχης, under Augustus, and later, with επι or επι αρχ[οντος]. The remarkable inscrr. ΑΤΕΛΕΙΑC and ΑΤΕΛΕΙΟC (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. II. 2) (immunitas a tributis) may be connected with the fact that Alabanda had built a temple to the goddess Roma before B.C. 170 (B. M. C., Caria, xxix). Chief types— Heads or figures of ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Demos(?); Tyche; Apollo ΚΙCCΙΟC holding raven and bow, and with ram at his feet (Z. f. N., viii. Pl. II. 5); Draped Apollo holding raven and laurel branch, lyre on a cippus beside him; Large laurel bough with three branches, filleted; Zeus ΕΠΙ ΚΟΥΡΟC (sic) Bust of Zeus Epikurios; Bust of ΑΡΤΕΜΙC; &c. (Num. Zeit., 1884, 267).
Alinda (Demirji-deresi) was situated on a rocky height commanding the plain of the Karpuzli-ova, through which an affluent of the Marsyas flows in an easterly direction towards Alabanda, about twelve miles distant. The district called Hidrias, of which Alinda was the chief town and a strong fortress, was ceded by Ada, the widow of Hidrieus, to Alexander the Great. Its earliest coins (Æ) date from the second century B.C. Inscr., ΑΛΙΝΔΕΩΝ. Obv. Head of Herakles. Rev. Lion-skin hanging over club, the whole in oak-wreath, imitated from contemporary half-cistophori; also Club in oak-wreath; Winged fulmen; Bow in case; Bipennis; Pegasos;
Amyzon. This small town stood on a height (some ten miles north- west of Alinda) which is now called Mazyn Kalessi. It struck a few coins in the first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΜΥΖΟΝΕΩΝ Types—Obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Lyre, Torch, or Stag; Magistrate’s name ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟC on some specimens (Imh., Gr. M. 662, and Mon. gr., 304). There is also a coin with the head of Augustus, as well as one or two quasi-autonomous coins of Imperial times. Types—Obv. Zeus Labrandeus standing, with inscr. ΧΩΜΑ ... ΟC(?), rev. Apollo standing (N. Z., 1884, 268); also obv. Laureate head, rev. Female head with straight curls (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. III. 1). For further list see Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 129 f.
Antiocheia ad Maeandrum stood on high ground overlooking the plain of the Maeander at its confluence with the Morsynus. Its founda- tion dates from early Seleucid times. When Caria received the gift of freedom from the Roman Senate, B.C. 168, Antiocheia began to strike coins, Tetradrachms, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, Eagle on fulmen and magistrate’s name in circular Maeander pattern (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XLV. 10), also obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Humped bull in circular Maeander pattern surmounted by pilei of Dioskuri (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. III. 3). On the contemporary drachms the bull is recumbent (op. cit., Pl. III. 4), and on the bronze coins the humped bull or an eagle are frequent reverse types (Pl. III. 6, with inscr. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩ ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΩ), heads of Mên and of Apollo being the ordinary types of the obverses. For other types see Imh., Kl. M., 108. Some of these autonomous bronze coins have magistrates’ names in genitive case. There are also gold Philippi from a find at Aidin, with mint letters ΑΝ (B. M. C., Caria, cviii), and Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1176-7) which were probably issued at Antiocheia in the second century B.C.
The subsequent coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranges from Augustus to Salonina, with heads and names of Emperors or of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΓΕΡΟΥ- CΙΑ; ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟC (the founder); ΝΑΡΒΙC (city goddess); and figures of ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC standing (Imh., Kl. M., 110); ΖЄΥC ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΟC seated, or in temple; ΑΝΤΙΟΧЄΙΑ seated; ΡΩΜΗ seated; ΗΡΑ standing; River-god ΜΟΡCΥΝΟC standing; CΩΖΩΝ standing; River-god ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΕ recumbent; ΚΤΙCΤΗC standing; and many other conventional figures of various divinities. Also a Lik- nophoros supporting a basket (?) on his head (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. IV. 3); Hekate triformis; Nemesis; Artemis Ephesia; Atys; a representation of a bridge over the Maeander consisting of six arches and adorned with statues of the River-god and two figures standing, &c. (Fig. 303).
From Augustus to Claudius coins were issued by a ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ or Collegium, under the presidency of a chief magistrate, e.g. ΙΑΣΟΝΟΣ ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 81), ΑΓΕΛΑΟΥ ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imh. Kl. M., 110), and, under Domitian, the name of this official or commissioner appointed to supervise the coinage is accompanied by ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see v. Fritze, Nomisma, i, p. 3).
Alliance coins with Aphrodisias (Commodus, Imh., Kl. M., 112), and Laodiceia ad Lycum (Commodus, Mion. iii. 318, 87).
Aphrodisias stood on one of the western spurs of Mount Salbacus, about 1,600 feet above the sources of the river Morsynus, some 20 miles south-east of Antiocheia. The little river Timeles, one of the affluents of the Harpasus, took its rise in the territory of the city, and personifica- tions of both streams occur on the coins. The neighbouring town of Plarasa was, during the latter part of the first century B.C., united with Aphrodisias, and the two together formed a single community upon which the rights of ελευθερια and ατελεια were conferred in the time of M. Antony, B.C. 39-35.
Both cities appear, however, to have struck independently a few autonomous bronze coins before their union (B. M. C., Caria, p. xxxiii).
The coinage of silver drachms and bronze in their joint names ΠΛΑΡΑΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙΕΩΝ belongs probably to the end of the first century B.C. The type of the drachm is a veiled head of Aphrodite, rev. Eagle on fulmen. The types of the autonomous bronze coins are more varied, e. g. Double-axe, rev. Cuirass; Bust of Eros, rev. Rose or Double-axe; Bust of Aphrodite, rev. Double-axe; Head of Zeus, rev. Cultus-statue of Aphrodite; Head of Aphrodite, rev. Ares stand- ing, &c.
Magistrates’ names, one or more in nominative case, often accompanied with patronymic, and, in one instance, with title ΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΔΗΜΟΥ (B. M. C., Caria, p. 26, 6). The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins range from Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΦΡΟΔΕΙCΙЄΩΝ. Magis- trates’ names with titles ΥΙΟC ΑΦΡΟΔΙCΙЄΩΝ or ΥΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC Archiereus, Hiereus, Archineokoros, Archon, or the board of Archons (ЄΠΙ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΙ ΜЄΝЄCΘЄΑ ΙCΟΒΟΥΝΟΝ). In many instances the coins are so-called dedicatory issues, with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ, e.g. by an Archiereus or Hiereus, to his native city, ΤΗ ΠΑΤΡΙΔΙ, or on the occasion of an agonistic victory, ЄΠΙΝΙΚΙΟΝ or the dedicator, while providing the means for the issue as a λειτουργια, may also have supervised it, ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see von Fritze,
Alliance coins with Ephesus (S. Severus); with Antiocheia (Sev. Alex.); cf. also Antiocheia with Aphrodisias (Commodus) and Hierapolis with Aphrodisias (Commodus).
Apollonia Salbace. This town is placed at the modern village Medet, about ten miles north-east of Tabae and south of the Salbacus mountains. For coins of the first century B.C. formerly attributed to this city see B. M. C., Lydia (Pl. XXXVIII. 1-5). These are now assigned to Tripolis on the Maeander, which it would seem was originally called Apollonia. The earliest undisputed coins of Apollonia Salbace are therefore quasi- autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΠΟΑΛΩ- ΝΙΑΤΩΝ. Magistrate, sometimes with title Strategos, on earlier coins in nominative case usually with patronymic (cf. Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 84 sqq.); on later coins in genitive, occasionally with δια or επι; Hiereus with ΑΝΕΘΗΚΕ. Types—Busts of ΑΠΟΛΑΩΝΙΑ CΑΛΒΑΚΗ, ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, Athena, Apollo, Sarapis, &c. Reverses—Apollo draped, holding raven and branch, or with lyre at his feet; Zeus Nikephoros seated; Asklepios and Hygieia; Temple containing three statues (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 121, No. 9); Daphne kneeling, clasping laurel tree and looking back at Apollo, who follows her (Z. f. N., vii. 218); Helios in quadriga; Emperor on horseback hunting wild beasts; Isis standing; Pan with goat; Demeter; Zeus Laodikeus between city-goddess and Athena (Imh., Gr. M., 145); Zeus seated holding child (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 85); &c.
Astyra, a town on the peninsula of Mount Phoenix opposite Rhodes, described by Steph. Byz. as πολις Φοινικης κατα Ποδον.
|Amphora. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 1.]||ΑΣΤV Oenochoë and lyre (‘chelys’),
beneath which, tendril with bud.
AR Stater, 149.5 grs.
|Oenochoë in circle. [Ibid., Pl. X. 2.]||Incuse square, diagonally quartered.
AR 9.8 grs.
|Α, Vase with one handle.
[Ibid., Pl. X. 3.]
|Α, Oenochoë without foot.
AR 16.8 grs.
|Rose.||Α, in incuse square.
AR 3.2 grs.
|Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of Rhodes.||ΑΣΤΥ Amphora with small oenochoë
|Head of Aphrodite (?).
[Ibid., Pl. X. 5-8.]
Attuda, on the borderland of Caria and Phrygia, was situated on the northern slope of the Salbacus range. Its territory was bounded on the north by the Maeander and on the east by that of Laodiceia. Its earliest coins are silver drachms of the first century B.C., contemporary with those of Aphrodisias and Plarasa.
|Head of Kybele, turreted.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 9.]
|ΑΤΤΟΥΔΔΕΩΝ Apollo naked, lean-
ing on column. Three magistrates’
names in nominative case.
AR 53 grs.
The next issues are quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranging from Augustus(?) to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΤΤΟVΔЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names usually with δια and titles, VΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC ΑCΙΑΡΧΗC, and ΙЄΡЄΙΑ. On a coin of S. Severus ЄΠΙΜЄ[ληθεντος] takes the place of δια, and coins with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ are also recorded, issued by a heredi- tary Priestess, Ulpia Claudiana, in the time of the Antonines, and reading ЄΠΙ CΤЄΦ(ανηφορον) ΟVΛΠΙΑC ΚΛΑVΔΙΑΝΗC (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 87). Types—ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ, ΒΟVΛΗ ΒΟVΛΗ and ΔΗΜΟC face to face, ΔΗΜΟC, ΑΤΤΟVΔΑ, ΠΟΛΙC, Zeus, Athena, Asklepios, Helios, Sarapis, &c., and ΜΗΝ ΚΑΡΟV (B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 15), in whose temple, near Attuda, Mên was worshipped in Strabo’s time, (ob. c. A.D. 19); Altar of the god Mên, on which are two pine-cones, &c.; Kybele standing or seated between lions, or in temple; Leto carrying her children; Zeus naked, wielding fulmen; Apollo naked; Dionysos; Asklepios and Hygieia; Rider-god (Sabazios) with double-axe; Cultus-statue of draped goddess (Artemis Anaïtis ?); Nemesis; Dioskuri standing; Tree with altar before it, &c. Attuda was closely united with the neighbouring cities Aphrodisias and Trapezopolis in the common worship of Kybele, under the name of Μητηρ ‘Αδραστος, and of Mên Karou (Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., 166).
Alliance coin with Trapezopolis (Ant. Pius) (Imh., Kl. M., 126) with inscription ΔΙΑ Μ. ΟΥΛ. ΚΛΑΥΔΙΑΝΟΥ ΥΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΟΥ.
Bargylia, on the south shore of the gulf called after it and nearly oppo- site Iasus. In the first century B.C. it struck drachms (wt. circ. 46 grs.) and bronze coins,—obv. Veiled head of Artemis Kindyas, rev. ΒΑΡΓΥΛΙΗ- ΤΩΝ Pegasos, or Bellerophon on Pegasos; obv. Cultus-statue of the same goddess, rev. Stag; obv. Forepart of Pegasos, rev. Forepart of Stag; obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Bow and Quiver, &c. Bargylia was said to have been founded by Bellerophon in honour of his companion Bargylos, who had been killed by a kick from Pegasos. The types refer to this legend and to the cultus of Artemis Kindyas at the neighbouring temple open to the sky, containing the cultus-statue of the goddess, upon which neither rain nor snow ever fell (Polyb., xvi. 12; Strab., 658). Bargylia struck a few Imperial coins, Augustus to Geta. Types—Cultus-statue of Artemis Kindyas, with stag beside her; Asklepios; &c. They are without magis- trates’ names.
Callipolis. Arrian (Anab. ii. 5, 7) mentions Callipolis with Halicar- nassus, Myndus, Caunus, and Thera, as a citadel held by Orontobates against Ptolemy and Asander. An inscription found near Idyma, in which δημος Καλλιπολιταν is mentioned, probably indicates its site (Imh., Kl. M., 138). Imhoof (Mon. gr., p. 307, and Kl. M., 138) attributes to this town the following coins of the second century B.C. :—
|Head of Apollo.||ΚΑΛΛΙΠΟΛΙΤΑΝ Quiver in shallow
|Id.||ΚΑΛ Ram standing.
Caryanda. The site of this place has been fixed by Myres and Paton at a few miles north of Telmessus. Imhoof (Mon. gr., 307) assigns to it small bronze coins probably of the third century. B.C. or earlier.
|Female head wearing stephane.||ΚΑΡΥ Forepart of bull.
Caunus, which stood on the river Calbis about four miles from its harbour, was an important naval station opposite Rhodes. In B. M. C., Caria, p. xliv, I have suggested that the following archaic staters may have been struck there before the Persian Conquest.
|Forepart of lion with or Ο on shoulder.||Incuse square, divided into two oblong
halves, as on early coins of Camirus
AR 172.2 grs.
To the latter half of the fourth century the following bronze coins may belong :—
|Rushing bull or forepart of bull (River Calbis?).||
After Alexander’s death Caunus was successively possessed by the satrap Asander, by Eumenes, by Antigonus (B.C. 313), and from 309 till 189 by the Ptolemies, when it was purchased by the Rhodians, from whom it revolted in 167, when its freedom was recognized by the Roman Senate.
To the period of Ptolemaic rule (B.C. 309-189) the following coins seem to belong :—
|Head of Alexander the Great.||Κ ΑΥ Filleted cornucopiae; symbol ♀.
AR 14.1 grs.
|Similar.||Same; no symbol.
Under the Rhodian rule, B.C. 189-167, Caunus may have issued small silver coins of the Rhodian type, but differentiated from the Rhodian issues by the addition of an eagle in front of the cheek of the full-face head of Helios (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 12-14).
To the short period of autonomy after 167 the following silver and bronze coins probably belong :—
|Head of Zeus.|
[Z. f. N., xxiv, Pl. III. 16.]
|Κ ΑΥ Winged fulmen; magistrate's
name; in shallow incuse square.
AR 40 grs.
|Helmeted head of Athena.||Κ ΑΥ Sword in sheath. Magistrate's
name and symbol.
AR 17.4 grs.
|Head of Apollo.||Id.
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 12.]
|Κ ΑΥ Naked figure l., holding trans-
verse sceptre with serpent twined
round lower end.
Ceramus, on the north coast of the Ceramic gulf about thirty miles west of Halicarnassus, was one of the most important towns of the Chrysao- rian confederacy (see Stratoniceia). Its earliest coinage may be com- pared with the contemporary issues of Stratoniceia.
|Head of Zeus.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ ///////////// Eagle with head turned
back, in shallow incuse
AR 38.6 grs.
|Id.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙ Eagle r., in shallow incuse
square. Magistrate’s name.
|Beardless head, with formal curls.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Bull’s head, facing. Magis-
|Similar head.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗΤΩΝ Female head. Magis-
|Head of Zeus, with formal curls.||ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Eagle with head turned
back. Magistrate’s name.
It is doubtful whether the bronze coin in B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XII. 11, is rightly attributed to Ceramus. The Imperial coinage extends from
Chersonesus adjoining Cnidus was the chief of three independent communities which continued to exist under the name of Κοινον Χερσο- νασιων down to the time of the Rhodian dominion in Caria. This Κοινον was assessed separately from Cnidus in the Athenian Quota-Lists. The coins of the Chersonesii, which seem to be all anterior to B.C. 500, are of the Aeginetic standard, like the contemporary coins of Cnidus.
|Forepart of lion.|
[B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIII. 1.]
|+ΕΡ (retrogr.) Forepart of bull in
AR 183.4 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XIII. 2.]||+ΕΡ Bull’s head, facing, in incuse
AR 90.4 grs.
|Lion’s head.||+ΕΡ Bull’s head r., in incuse square.
AR 13.5 grs.
See Paus. v. 24. 7; Strab. xiv. 2. 15; Köhler, Del.-Att. Bund, 195; Six, Z. f. N., iii. 375; and B. M. C., Caria, xlvi.
Cidramus. This town is conjecturally placed between Antiocheia and Attuda (J. H. S., xi. 120) south of the Maeander on the Caro-Phrygian frontier. Its coins are quasi-auton. and Imp., Augustus to J. Maesa. Inscr., ΚΙΔΡΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Down to Hadrian’s time the Magistrates’ names are in the nominative case with patronymic. From Hadrian to M. Aurelius they are in the genitive preceded by δια, not επι. The only magistrate’s title which occurs is ΠΡ[υτανις ?] on a coin of Augustus. (Z. f. N., xv. 52). From the time of Claudius down to that of Ant. Pius (circ. A.D. 50-150) the supervision of the coinage of Cidramus seems to have been undertaken by, or entrusted to, members, in succession to one another, of a single rich and locally influential family, e.g. ΠΟΛЄ- ΜΩΝ CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Claudius); ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟC CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Vespasian); ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟV and ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΑΟV ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Hadrian); ΔΙ. CЄΛЄVΚΟ. ΠΟΛЄΜΩ. and ΔΙ. ΑΡΤЄΜΑ ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Ant. Pius and M. Aur. Caes.). See Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., i. 185, and Imhoof, Kl. M., 141. Chief types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΖЄΥC ΛΥΔΙΟC; Helios; &c. Reverse types—Cultus-statue of Aphrodite or of Artemis Anaïtis; Aphrodite draped, facing, with arms extended, around her, two or more Erotes; Cultus-statue of another draped goddess with a coiled serpent at her feet, standing in a distyle shrine; Draped goddess veiled supporting with one hand a kalathos upon her head; Dionysos; Mên; Hermes; &c.
Cnidus, doubtless originally a Phoenician settlement, was afterwards colonized by Dorians, and was a member of the Dorian Hexapolis (later
From the Phoenicians, however, the Cnidians would seem to have received a still earlier worship, that of Aphrodite Ευπλοια. An extremely archaic head of this goddess occurs on a seventh-century silver stater with two incuse squares on the reverse (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIII. 7), the attribution of which to Cnidus is conjectural. The earliest inscribed coins, which are on the Aeginetic standard, are as follows :—
|Forepart of lion.
[B. M. C., Caria, Pls. XIII, XIV.]
|ΚΝΙΔΙΟΝ retrogr. or variously ab-
breviated. Head of Aphrodite of
archaic style, in incuse square.
AR Drachms 95 grs.
AR Diobols 27.3 grs.
During the period of the Athenian hegemony the coinage of Cnidus appears to have ceased almost, if not entirely. Α similar diminution of local currency while Athens was collecting her annual tribute is apparent at several other cities besides Cnidus.
The Cnidian drachms and smaller coins of this period, of the same type and standard as the preceding, are of fine transitional style (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIV. 5).
About B.C. 400 Cnidus, following the example of Rhodes, adopted the so-called Rhodian standard. The head of Aphrodite henceforth occupies the obverse side of the coin, and is distinguished as Aphrodite Euploia by the addition of the Prow as an adjunct symbol.
|ΚΝΙ Head of Aphrodite Euploia; be- hind, Prow. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 6-8.]||Incuse square, within which forepart of
lion; beneath, magistrate’s name.
AR Tetradr. 234 grs. (Fig. 304.)
AR Didr. 110 grs.
AR Dr. 57.6 grs.
Between B.C. 394 and 390 must be placed the Federal Coinage of Cnidus, Iasus, Rhodes, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, of which the following is the Cnidian example:—
|ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling ser- pents. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 9.]||ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head of Aphrodite Euploia;
AR Tridrachm 164.8 grs.
Tetradrachms and smaller divisions. Obv. Head of Aphrodite Euploia; Rev. ΚΝΙ Forepart of Lion, or, on some half-drachms, Bull’s head facing (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XV. 1-8). Magistrates’ names in nominative case.
The coinage of Cnidus in this period is plentiful. The heads of Aphrodite on the tetradrachms and drachms are varied and beautiful (see Montagu Sale Cat., Pl. VIII. 599, 600). On the tetrobols the head of Aphrodite is replaced by that of Artemis, and the Lion by a Tripod. Nearly all the smaller bronze coins of Cnidus also fall into this period. The most frequent types are obv. Head of Aphrodite, rev. Prow; obv. Head of Democracy with legend ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ, rev. Prow (Imh., M. G., p. 310); or obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Tripod, or Bull’s head facing; obv. Head of Helios radiate r., rev. Bull’s head r.; &c.
After the defeat of Antiochus and the extension of the Rhodian dominion over Caria, the coinage of Cnidus was assimilated to that of Rhodes.
|Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of Rhodes. [B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XVI. 1.]||ΚΝΙ Forepart of lion; behind, rose
AR 78 grs.
|Similar. [B. M.]||Head of Aphrodite; behind, rose.
To this period may also be assigned the Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Nos. 1151-2), with a tripod in the field as mint-mark.
When Rhodes was deprived of her possessions on the mainland, Cnidus ceased also to be of much importance. The coinage of silver was discontinued, and the bronze money became less and less plentiful.
|Head of Apollo, with stiff curls.
[B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XVI. 2.]
|ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head and neck of bull.
In the first century B.C. Dionysiac types prevail: obv. Head of young Dionysos crowned with ivy, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Vine-branch with grapes, Æ 1.1; or obv. Head of the Aphrodite of Praxiteles, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙWΝ Dionysos standing, Æ 1.3-.95.
In Roman times Cnidus seems from its scanty coinage to have lost its former importance. Only a few coins exist, Nero to Caracalla; but among them is a copy of the famous statue of the Cnidian Aphrodite by Praxiteles. She is represented as if about to enter the bath, naked, and seen in front, but with her head in profile, and she holds in her extended left hand a garment over an urn (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 30. Cf. J. H. S., viii, p. 124 f.).
Cys. This place, called Κυον in Steph. Byz., and Κυς in inscriptions, was probably situated at the modern Béli-Pouli, in the hilly country between the upper valleys of the Marsyas and Harpasus. The very few bronze coins which bear its name seem to belong to the first century B.C. Inscr., ΚΥ., ΚΥΙ., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ, and [Κ]ΥΕΙΤΩΝ. Types—obv. Head of Ar- temis, rev. Quiver and Hunting-spear (or possibly Pedum) the whole in wreath; obv. Quiver between vine-branches, rev. Cornucopiae; Thyrsos in ivy-wreath. Imperial coinage, Domna. Inscr., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ Female figure seated, facing (Cf. Z. f. N., xiii. 71).
Euippe, the site of which is still uncertain, is to be sought for in the region between the rivers Marsyas and Harpasus. It struck a few bronze coins in the second or first century B.C. Obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Quiver with strap; and obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Pegasos; &c. Inscr., ΕΥΙΠΠΕΩΝ. There are also Imperial coins, Trajan to Cara- calla. Inscr., ЄΥΙΠΠЄΩΝ. Types—Hekate to front; Tyche; Hygieia; &c. (cf. Imhoof, Kl. M., 127).
Euromus, the modern Ayakly, about eight miles north-west of Mylasa, issued autonomous bronze coins in the second and first centuries B.C. Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΕΥΡΩΜΕΩΝ Double-axe; obv. Head of Dionysos, rev. Cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos, to front, with double- axe and spear, between pilei of Dioskuri; sometimes with abbreviated magistrate’s name (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XVII. 5). The Zeus worshipped at Euromus was doubtless the Zeus Labraundos of the neighbouring sanctuary near Mylasa, although, if Vaillant (Num. Gr., 100) is to be trusted, he is specially designated on a coin of Caracalla as ΖЄΥC ЄΥΡΩΜЄΥC. The Imperial coins range from Augustus, rev. Stag (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88), to Caracalla (?).
Gordiuteichos was a small Carian town perhaps situated at the modern Karasu on the left bank of the Morsynus, about ten miles below Aphrodisias. The only coins known of this city belong to the second century B.C. Inscr., ΓΟΡΔΙΟΤЄΙΧΙΤΩΝ Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Archaic cultus-statue of Aphrodite (B. M. C., Car., liii sq.).
Halicarnassus. Although this city rose to fame under the dynasts of Caria, Mausolus and his successors, from B.C. 367 until its destruction by Alexander, B.C. 334, it was never of great importance commercially either before or after this short period.
For the early history of the town see Newton, Halicarnassus, Cnidus,
|Forepart of Pegasos.|
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XVIII. 1.]
|Head of goat in incuse square.
Obol AR 10.5
|Head of Apollo, facing.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 3.]
|ΑΛΙ Eagle (?) and olive spray in incuse
Drachm AR 52.8
|Forepart of Pegasos.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 4, 5.]
|Α or ΑΛΙ Forepart of goat in incuse
Obol AR 10.3
|ΑΛΙ Forepart of Pegasos.|
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 6.]
|Lyre between two laurel-branches.
From this time down to that of Alexander’s conquest, B.C. 334, Hali- carnassus, as the capital of Caria, was the place of mintage of the splendid series of coins struck by Mausolus, Hidrieus, Pixodarus, and Orontobates, dynasts of Caria (see infra, pp. 629 ff). It appears, however, to have continued to retain the right of issuing small Æ in its own name (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88). From B.C. 334, the date of the destruc- tion of the city by Alexander, until some time in the third century B.C., when it was rebuilt and included among the cities under Ptolemaic rule, it struck few if any coins. The following seem to be somewhat later in date. For other varieties see Imhoof, op. cit., p. 89.
|Head of Poseidon.||ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Tripod.
|Head of Apollo.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 9, 10.]
|ΑΛΙ Eagle; in front, lyre.
|Head of Poseidon.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 11, 12.]
|ΑΛΙΚΑΡ Trident, and abbreviated
This is the period of the Rhodian supremacy, to which the following coins belong :—
|Head of Rhodian Helios, facing.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 14, 15.]
|ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ variously abbreviated.
Bust of Athena, and magistrates’
names in nominative case.
AR Attic Drachms 65 grs.
|Head of Apollo, r.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 16.]
|ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Lyre.
AR ½ Drachm 27. 1 grs.
|Bust of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 17, 18.]||ΑΛΙΚ Owl.
AR Trihemiobol 14.8 grs.
There are also bronze coins of various types which can only belong to this period (see B. M. C., Car., pp. 107-9, and Pl. XVIII. 19-21), of which the most noteworthy is a veiled goddess, to front, holding phiale and cornucopiae (?).
The coinage of Halicarnassus under the Empire extends from Augustus (? or Nero) to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΛΙΚΑΡΝΑCCЄΩΝ. Magis- trate, Archon. Types—ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟC, Bald and bearded head of Hero- dotus; Draped male divinity bearded and radiate facing between two trees, one each of which sits a bird (Fig. 305). This is supposed to represent Zeus Ασκραιος, or Zeus of the oak trees, who was worshipped at Halicarnassus (cf. Apollon. Dyscol., Hist. Mirab., ed. Ideler, § 13; Overbeck, Kunstmyth. ii. 210); the two birds are clearly oracular. ΤЄΛΜΙCЄΥC, a draped male figure holding a branch (Leake, Num. Hell. As. Gr., p. 64); Ter- minal statue of Athena, in temple.
Alliance coins with Cos and Samos.
Harpasa, on the river Harpasus, some twelve miles south of its junction with the Maeander. Autonomous Æ of the second or first century B.C.; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΡΠΑΣΗΝΩΝ Apollo Kitharistes with laurel- branch at his feet (B. M.), or Artemis Huntress with adjunct symbols, Caduceus, or Crested helmet (Imh., Kl. M., 131). Harpasa also seems to have issued some small silver coins resembling those of Stratoniceia, but with Α Ρ one either side of the Eagle on the reverse.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Domitian to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΠΑCΗΝΩΝ. Types—Busts of Athena, Sarapis. ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Magistrates’ names in, genitive case with or without επι, and, under Caracalla, in nominative, with title ‘Αρχιατρος, which occurs also on coins of Ceramus and Heracleia Salbace, and in inscriptions of various Carian towns (Marquardt, Privatleben d. Römer, p. 753, 8; 755, 4). Among the magistrates’ names is that of Candidus Celsus, sup- posed by Waddington (Fastes, 209) to have been a Proconsul of Asia. under Ant. Pius. Among the reverse types we meet with the River-god Harpasos; Zeus Nikephoros; Athena in fighting attitude; Artemis Ephesia; Dionysos; &c. Alliance coins with Neapolis Cariae.
Heracleia Salbace. The site of this city was first identified by Wad- dington (As. Min., 51) at the modern Makuf, at the foot of the Salbacus range of mountains and at the north-eastern end of the plain of Tabae. Its territory was separated by the little river Timeles from that of the neighbouring city Aphrodisias, and the River-god ΤΙΜЄΛΗC is repre- sented on imperial coins of both cities.
The coinage of this Heracleia is quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Macrinus. Inscr., ΗΡΑΚΛЄΩΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in nominative case, under Augustus with patronymic, under Nero with title
Hydisus. The site of this town is still uncertain. As it was a member of the Athenian Confederacy, it was probably near the sea, possibly somewhere near Bargylia. Autonomous Æ of the first century B.C. Inscr., ΥΔΙΣΕΩΝ. Obv. Bearded helmeted head (Zeus Areios), rev. Eagle on fulmen or Pegasos with caduceus beneath; obv. Bust of Zeus Areios, rev. Zeus Areios standing; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Zeus Areios standing, with magistrate’s name in nominative case. Imperial— Domitian, Hadrian, and Sev. Alexander. The rev. types are ΖЄVC ΑΡЄΙΟC (Hadrian), Armed Zeus standing, hitherto wrongly attributed to Iasus; Goddess standing; Bellerophon on Pegasos (Sev. Alex.), with magistrate’s name and title, Archon. (Imhoof, Kl. M., 135, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 90.)
Hyllarima is conjecturally placed in the region between the rivers Harpasus and Marsyas, some twelve miles north-west of Cys (J. H. S., xvi. 242), on the site where Kiepert placed Hydisus. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Time of the Antonines and Gordian. Inscr., ΥΛΛΑΡΙΜЄΩΝ. Archon’s name with επι. Types—obv. Female bust, hair rolled, rev. Athena standing; obv. Veiled female bust, rev. Youth in quadriga (Rev. Num., 1892, Pl. IV. 14); obv. Bust of Ant. Pius, rev. Two figures of Kybele enthroned, facing each other; obv. Bust of Gordian, rev. Asklepios standing.
Iasus was an ancient Argive colony on the north side of the Bargylian gulf. There are archaic drachms of Aeginetic weight, the obv. type of which is a youth riding on a dolphin, which have been assigned to Iasus (Babelon, Traité, Pl. XVIII. 1, 2), but which, according to Svoronos (Journ. Int. d'Arch. Num., iii. 59), ought rather to be attributed to the island of Syros (supra, p. 480). Another coin conjecturally attributed to Iasus is the fine tetradrachm (B. M. C., Ion., p. 325, and supra, p. 597, Fig. 301), obv. Head of Persian Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ Lyre, wt. 236 grs. The head on this remarkable coin is supposed to be that of Tissaphernes (B. M. C., Car., p. lix). The earliest pieces which bear the name of Iasus are specimens of the alliance coinage issued after circ. B.C. 394 by Cnidus,
|Ι Α Head of Apollo.||ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling ser-
AR 166 grs.
|Same head. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. F. 7.]||ΙΑΣΕ Lyre in incuse square.
AR 27 grs.
The next issues of Iasus belong to the latter half of the third century :—
|Head of Apollo.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 1-4.]
|ΙΑ or ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Youth Hermias, swim-
ming with l. arm over dolphin’s back.
Magistrates’ names in nominative
AR 82 and 42 grs.
Æ size .7
|Head of Artemis.||Id.
Æ size .45
|Head of Apollo. [Ibid., Pl. XXI. 5.]||ΙΑΣΕΩΝ in ivy-wreath.
|Lyre in laurel-wreath.
[Ibid., Pl. XXI. 6.]
|ΙΑCЄΩΝ Hermias and dolphin.
|Apollo standing with dolphin at his feet. [Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 9.]||ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Artemis standing.
For other varieties, see Imh., Kl. M., p. 137. Most of the above coins have magistrates’ names in nominative case, among which may be men- tioned ΕΡΜΙΑΣ (not of course the dolphin-rider Hermias). The boy and dolphin as a coin-type of the Iasians is mentioned by Aelian (Hist. Anim., vi. 15), Plutarch (De solert. Anim., 36) and Pollux (ix. 84). The story of the love of a dolphin for a youth of Iasus, who is called Hermias by Plutarch and Pliny (N. H., ix. 8), and Dionysius by Athenaeus (xiii. 606), may have had an historical basis, for Alexander the Great is said to have ordered the boy to be sent to his court.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Augustus (?) to Gordian. Inscr., ΙΑCЄΩΝ. Types—Bearded head of the Founder ΙΑCΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 7); ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Hermias and dolphin; Sarapis and Kerberos; Isis Pharia; Artemis Ephesia.
Idyma, at the head of the Ceramic gulf, is mentioned several times in the Athenian Quota-Lists. In B. M. C., Caria, p. lxi, some archaic drachms of Aeginetic weight are conjecturally assigned to this town, but its earliest inscribed coins are drachms and smaller silver coins of the Phoenician standard which seem to range from about B.C. 450-400.
|Head of horned Pan to front.|
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 8.]
|ΙΔVΜΙΟΝ written round a fig-leaf in
AR 58.2 and 14 grs.
There are also a few small bronze coins which are of rather later style, and which belong to the earlier half of the fourth century.
|Youthful head of horned Pan to r.||Fig-leaf. [Imh. Mon. gr., Pl. F. 8.]
|Female head, r.||ΝΟΙΜΥΔΙ Fig-leaf. [Z. f. N., xxiv,
|ΛΥ Head of Aphrodite as on coins of Cnidus. [N. C., 1903, p. 399.]||Forepart of lion as on coins of Cnidus
AR 25 grs.
Mylasa, between the head of the Bargylian gulf and Stratoniceia, became in the time of Hecatomnus the residence of the dynasts of Caria, and remained so until Mausolus obtained possession of Halicarnassus. With the exception of the money of Hecatomnus no coins were struck at Mylasa until during or after the time of Alexander, when a certain Eupolemus (Diod. xiv. 68 and 77) struck some bronze coins in his own name, apparently at Mylasa (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 260 note).
|Three Macedonian shields thrown to- gether. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 11.]||ΕΥΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ Sword in sheath. Sym-
bol, double-axe (Labrys).
Alexandrine tetradrachms with monogram and symbol of Mylasa, Labrys and Trident combined (Müller, Num. d'Alex., Nos. 1141-3). Also gold Philippi with the same symbol (B. M. C., Car., lxiii). The bronze coins of this period have on the obverse, usually, a horse, and on the reverse ΜΥΛΑΣΕΩΝ Trident and Labrys combined or separate.
Augustus to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΜΥΛΑCЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in nominative under Augustus with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄΝ, and under Domitian with ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟC ΑΝЄΘ, and in genitive under Augustus with ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ ΥΒΡΕΟΥ. This Hybreas is the orator concern- ing whom Strabo (659-60) gives some interesting details. Types—In Strabo’s time there were two famous temples of Zeus within the territory of Mylasa, one of Zeus Οσογωα in the city itself, and the other of Zeus Λαβραυνδος or Στρατιος at the neighbouring village of Labranda. Zeus Osogoa was a combination of Zeus and Poseidon (Ζηνοποσειδων). He is represented on coins holding an eagle and resting on a trident; symbol, sometimes, crab. The cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos holds a labrys and a spear. There is also, on a coin of Caracalla, a figure of Zeus with a stag at his feet. Other types are, River-god (Kyberses ?); Hephaestos forging shield of Achilles (Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 26). There are likewise silver coins struck at Mylasa, one of C. Caesar (?), rev. Zeus Labraundos (Imh., Kl. M., 144), and some so-called ‘Medallions of Asia’ of Hadrian, with Latin legends and figures of Zeus Labraundos and Zeus Osogoa (Pinder, Cistoph., Pl. VII. 2, 3, 7, 8).
Myndus was a Dorian coast-town about ten miles north-west of Halicarnassus. Its coinage begins apparently in the second century B.C. (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII).
|Head of Apollo, laureate.
[The Hague. Imh., Z. f. N., iii, Pl. IX. 1.]
|ΜΙΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and
magistrates’ monograms; all in olive-
AR Tetradr. 263 grs.
|Head of Zeus, laureate, with head-dress of Osiris.||ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Head-dress of Isis and
magistrate’s name in nominative case.
AR Drachm 67 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and
magistrate’s name in nominative case.
AR ½ Drachm 33 grs.
|Id.||ΜΥΝΔΙ, &c. Bunch of grapes and
AR ¼ Drachm 16 grs.
There are also bronze coins with magistrates’ names in the nominative case. Types—Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on fulmen; Head of Apollo, rev. Owl on olive-branch; Portable altar; &c.; Head of Artemis, rev. Two dolphins.
Nero to Domna. Inscr., ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types— Apollo Kitharoedos and Artemis Myndia, between them tripod with serpent coiled round it, and beside Artemis, fire-altar (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII. 16); Small fire-altar with conical cover placed on the top of a large square altar; &c.
Neapolis Myndiorum (?). A town mentioned only by Mela (i. 16) and Pliny (N. H. v. 29) in the Dorian peninsula west of Halicarnassus.
|Head of Apollo.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 1.]
|ΝΕΑΠΟΛΙ ΜΥΝ(?) Lyre. Magis-
trate’s name (?) ΚΟΛΒΑ.
Neapolis ad Harpasum, the modern Ineboli in the lower valley of the Harpasus.
|Head of Zeus with stiff curls.|
[N. C., 1903, p. 400.]
|ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Eagle with open
wings, on fulmen. [B. M.]
|Head of Dionysos.|
[Imh., Kl. M., 147.]
|ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Artemis huntress,
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins extend from the time of the Flavians down to Treb. Gallus and Volusian. Inscr., ΝЄΑΠΟΛЄΙ- ΤΩΝ. Magistrate, Grammateus with επι, under Gordian and Volusian. Types—ΘЄΟC CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Athena standing; Dionysos standing; Artemis Ephesia and Tyche; Draped Zeus and Boule (?) with altar between them; Apollo standing beside column on which is his lyre; Tyche; &c. There has been much confusion between the coins of Neapolis ad Harpasum and those of Neapolis in Ionia, a few miles south of Ephesus. The latter, however, bore the title Aurelia or Hadriana Aurelia (B. M. C., Car., lxvi).
Orthosia (Ortas) stood on high ground overlooking the Maeander valley towards Nysa, which occupied the opposite hills on the northern side of the river at a distance of ten or twelve miles.
Autonomous bronze of the second and first centuries B.C. Inscr., ΟΡΘΩΣΙΕΩΝ. Types—Heads of Zeus; Poseidon(?); Dionysos. Re- verses—Athena fighting; Trident; Double-axe; Thyrsos; Panther with Thyrsos. Magistrates’ names in nominative case on earliest coins.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Augustus to Maximinus. Inscr., ΟΡΘΩCΙΕΩΝ. No magistrates’ names. Types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Zeus draped, standing, holding fulmen; The Dioskuri standing beside their horses; Herakles leaning on club; Tyche, &c.
Plarasa: see Aphrodisias.
Sebastopolis, the modern Kizilje, was a town on the road from Apol- lonia Salbace to Cibyra. Its coinage is quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Vespasian to Mamaea. Inscr., CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ and CΕΒΑCΤΟ- ΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates in nominative case under Vespasian. Types— CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙC ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Heads of Zeus, Dionysos, &c. Reverses—Artemis Ephesia; Thyrsos; Cista mystica; Veiled goddess Artemis (?) to front; Two warriors joining hands before cultus-statue of Artemis with stag or deer lying at foot of it; Hermes radiate with purse and caduceus; Dionysos; &c.
Stratoniceia, the modern Eski-Hissar, about thirty miles south of Alabanda, near the sources of the Marsyas, was named after Stratonice, wife of Antiochus I. Its earliest coins are later than B.C. 168, when Caria was declared by the Romans free and independent of Rhodes. To this period may perhaps be assigned a few coins of Alexander’s types bearing the letters ΣΤΡΑ in monogram (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1134-6). Between B.C. 166 and Imperial times Stratoniceia issued silver coins which probably had a wide circulation in central and southern Caria. Imhoof (Kl. M., 153) enumerates no fewer than forty magistrates’ names in the nominative case on these coins; and as some of them, e. g. Γαιος and Κλαυδιος, are Roman, there can be little doubt that the coinage was pro- longed down to Imperial times. When this silver coinage began is doubtful, but according to Imhoof its starting-point can hardly have been earlier than B.C. 81, when, by a decree of the Roman Senate, Stratoniceia seems to have been made a civitas libera et immunis sine foedere (B. M. C., Car., lxx). Within the territory of Stratoniceia there were three famous temples, one of Hekate at Lagina, a few miles north of the city, one of Zeus Chrysaoreus or Karios, the religious and political centre of the Carian race, near the city itself, and one of Zeus Panamaros, on a lofty height about twelve miles south-east of the town.
The types of the Stratoniceian coins of pre-Imperial times are as follows :—
|Head of Zeus, laureate.
[Z. f. N., 1888, Pl. I. 2.]
|ΣΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ Hekate standing
to front wearing polos surmounted
by crescent, and holding torch and
phiale. Magistrate’s name ΜΕΛΑΝ-
AR 166 grs.
|Id. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 17.]||ΣΤ ΡΑ Similar. Beside Hekate, altar.
Magistrates, ΛΕΩΝ and others.
AR 52.3 grs.
|Id. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 11-12.]||Σ Τ Eagle with open wings. Magis-
trates’ names in nominative case; the
whole in shallow incuse square.
AR 22 grs.
|Head of Hekate surmounted by crescent.
Magistrates’ names in nominative case.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII. 13.]
|CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕWΝ, or CΤΡΑ, &c. Nike
with wreath and palm; all in shallow
AR 30 grs.
For varieties and lists of Magistrates’ names, cf. Imhoof, op. cit., and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 96.
The latest silver coins, which belong to early Imperial times, are the following :—
|Bust of Augustus (?) within laur. wreath
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIV. 1).
|ΣΑΒΕΙΝΙΑΝΟΣ ΠΥΘΕΑΣ, ΣΤΡΑ-
ΤΟ... Zeus Panamaros (?) on horse;
in front, lighted altar.
AR 99 grs.
|Bust of Hekate. Magistrate ΖΩΠΥ- ΡΟΣ (Vatican).||ΣΤΡΑ Similar; no altar.
AR 53 grs.
|Head of Augustus.
[Imh., Gr. M., 151, 449a.]
|ΑΡΙCΤΕΑC [ΧΙΔ...(?)], CΤΡΑ Simi-
AR 47 grs.
The small bronze coins which accompany the silver issues above described, bear heads of Zeus and Hekate, and on the reverses, Eagle, Torch, Flying Pegasos, or Nike. (See B. M. C., Car., 148 ff. )
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage extends from Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, with addition, on a coin of Titus, of ΦΙΛΟCΕΒΑCΤΩΝ (Imh., Kl. M., 156). Magistrates’ names usually with επι and frequently with titles, Prytaneis, Archon, Grammateus, or Strategos, also φηφισαμενου under Trajan or Hadrian, and, if correctly read, επιμελη(θεντος) under Severus (Mion. S., vi. 538), also επι των περι τ. β or δ (στρατηγον?) under Caracalla. Chief types—ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus seated; Nike; Bellerophon holding Pegasos; Altar between torches; Pegasos with inscr. ΒΕΛ; Head of Zeus; Artemis slaying stag; Zeus Panamaros on horse; Hekate riding on radiate lion with dog’s tail (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIV. 4); Hekate standing at altar or with dog at her feet; Artemis Ephesia between two stags; Βουθυτης sacrificing bull under tree; Helmeted figure seated holding statuette of Athena. On a coin of Caracalla and Plautilla the latter bears the title NEA Θ. ΗΡ (Νεα Θεα Ηρα), which is also met with on coins of Alabanda and Alinda.
Syangela (?), about twelve miles east of Halicarnassus. Imhoof (Mon. gr., 323) has conjecturally assigned to this town a drachm (obv. Head of bearded Dionysos, rev. ΣΥ Kantharos in incuse square, wt. 63 grs.) and a bronze coin. The drachm was attributed by Waddington
Tabae, the modern Davas, occupied the heights at the western end of a plain extending in a north-easterly direction towards Mount Salbacus. The population was a mixed one consisting of Carians, Phrygians, and Pisidians, and it was probably not thoroughly hellenized until a com- paratively late date, for there are no coins which can be safely attri- buted to a period much earlier than the latter half of the first century B.C. The oldest are drachms and hemidrachms of reduced Attic or Rhodian weight, and bronze coins :—
|Veiled female head.
[Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. V. 30.]
|ΤΑΒ (in mon.) Forepart of humped
AR 14.3 grs.
|Head of Dionysos with band across fore-
head and ivy-wreath.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 1.]
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Homonoia standing, wear-
ing kalathos and holding phiale and
AR 58 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 6.]
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Cultus-statue of Aphrodite
resembling Artemis Ephesia, but be-
tween crescent and star. Archon's
name in nominative with patronymic.
AR 31 grs.
|Id., or Head of Zeus.
[Ibid., Pl. XXV. 7, 8.]
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Artemis standing, holding
torch and bow. Magistrate’s name
AR 37.5 grs.
|Head of Zeus.||ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Zeus äetophoros, hurling
fulmen. Same magistrate.
AR 39.5 grs.
|Bust of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 9.]||ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Nike advancing. Various
AR 30.4 grs.
|Id. [Num. Chron., ix. 161.]||ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Dionysos standing, hold-
ing kantharos and thyrsos.
AR 20 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 10.]
|ΤΑΒΝWΝ Homonoia standing, as
on earlier coins. Magistrate’s name
AR 53.7 grs.
|ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Bust of Dionysos in ivy- wreath. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 11.]||Poseidon standing with one foot on prow,
resting on trident; dolphin behind
him. Magistrate’s name with patro-
AR 54.3 grs.
|Aequitas standing, with scales and sceptre. [Imh., Gr. M., 677.]||ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Capricorn, with globe be-
tween feet; above, CΕΒΑCΤΟC.
AR 26 grs.
Among the earlier bronze coins of the pre-Imperial age are the follow- ing :—veiled head, rev. Forepart of humped bull; Head of Zeus, rev. Pilei of the Dioskuri; Helmeted male bust, rev. Humped bull. The later issues, which seem to be contemporary with the silver of early Imperial times, above described, bear heads of young Dionysos on the obverses, and on the reverses :—Two thyrsi crossed; the Pilei of the Dioskuri, sometimes on an altar; Poseidon with foot on prow; &c.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Augustus to Salonina. Inscr. ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names without title or with that of Archon, at first in nominative case, later in genitive, preceded, under Domitian, by δια, and under Valerian and Gallienus usually by επι. Chief types—Busts of ΔΗΜΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus; Herakles; &c. Reverse types—Capricorn; Nemesis standing; Nike; Tyche; Panther; Stag; Pilei of Dioskuri on altar; Artemis huntress; Demeter standing; Two identical figures of Artemis huntress, facing, side by side; Dionysos standing, with panther; Artemis and Mên, face to face; Male pantheistic divinity, radiate, holding torch, lotus-headed sceptre, caduceus and bow; Poseidon standing (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVI. 9); Pan with goats’ legs, dancing; Temple of Artemis; Agonistic crown on table, inscr. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ.
Termera was an ancient city which occupied the southern part of the peninsula west of Halicarnassus, facing the island of Cos. Herodotus (v. 37) informs us that in the reign of Darius Hystaspis (B.C. 521-485) it was governed by a tyrant named Tymnes, and it is probable that the inscr. ΤVΜΝΟ on the Persic drachm described below may be the name of this dynast, or possibly of some younger member of the same family.  The Persic tetrobol (of doubtful attribution (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 161)) is evidently earlier, and appears to belong to the latter half of the sixth century B.C. (see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, p. 415).
|Herakles naked (?), kneeling r., holding
bow and wielding club.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVII. 1.]
|Lion’s head r. in incuse square.
AR Tetrob. 55.6 grs.
|ΤVΜΝΟ Herakles in lion-skin, kneel-
ing, with sword in scabbard at belt,
holding in raised r. hand a club, and
in extended l. bow.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVII. 2.]
|ΤΕDΜΕDΙΚΟΝ Lion’s head in incuse
AR Drachm 72.4 grs.
During the subsequent Athenian hegemony Termera is assessed in the Quota-lists at a higher rate than its nearest neighbours, Myndus and Halicarnassus, but it does not appear to have struck any coins after the time of Tymnes. Under Mausolus Termera was destroyed and its population removed to Halicarnassus, the citadel alone being maintained as a prison.
Trapezopolis, on the northern side of the Salbacus range (J. H. S.,
xvii. 401), near the sources of the river Caprus, which appears to have
1 Cf. the Quota-Lists (I. G., i. 240, and Hill, Sources for Gk. Hist., p. 71) [Καρ]ες ον Τυ[μνες αρχει], circ. 440 B.C.
Alliance coin with Attuda, Ant. Pius, struck at the latter place (Imh., Kl. M., 126).
Tymnessus. This Carian town, the site of which has not been identified, is mentioned only by Steph. Byz., s. v. It would seem how- ever that, in early Imperial times, it possessed a mint and issued small bronze coins. Obv. Head of Zeus; rev. ΤVΜΝΗCΕΩΝ Head of Emperor (?) resembling Vespasian (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 99).
SATRAPS OF CARIA
When Athens, after her Sicilian defeat during the Peloponnesian War, lost her command of the sea, the coast towns of Caria, &c., which since B.C. 469 had been tributary allies, fell again under Persian rule, and were assigned by the Great King to the Satrapy of Tissaphernes; and it is to his time that the remarkable tetradrachm described above (p. 597), obv. Head of Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ and Lyre, is generally ascribed. On the death of Tissaphernes, Hecatomnus of Mylasa became Satrap of Caria circ. B.C. 395.
Hecatomnus, B.C. 395-377. The earliest coins of this ruler are drachms, &c. of Attic weight, and bronze coins probably struck at Mylasa, the types of which may be compared with the coins of Miletus :—
|ΕΚΑ Lion’s head and foreleg.
[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXI. 5.]
|Star in incuse circle.
AR 65.7 grs.
|Lion’s head l.||Similar.|
Æ Size .3
It is to a somewhat later date, probably after the Peace of Antalcidas, B.C. 387, that the following tetradrachms belong :—
|Zeus Labraundos, armed with spear and
double-axe, walking to r.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 1.]
|ΕΚΑΤΟΜ Lion r., in incuse circle.
AR 221 grs.
|Id. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., Pl. V. 17.]||Persian king standing, drawing bow.
AR 232 grs.
In B.C. 386 Hecatomnus assigned the city of Halicarnassus to his eldest son Mausolus, whose earliest coinage, like that of his father Hecatomnus, resembles that of Miletus :—
|ΜΑ Lion’s head and foreleg.
[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXI. 6.]
|Star in incuse circle. |
AR 195.8 grs.
On the attributions of the above-mentioned coins see Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., pp. 100 sqq.
Mausolus, B.C. 377-353. Although Mausolus succeeded his father as Satrap of Caria in B.C. 377, it would seem that the tetradrachms and drachms of the Rhodian standard which bear his name were not struck before the removal of the satrapal residence from Mylasa to Hali- carnassus, which then became the capital of Caria, B.C. 367 (?).
|Head of Apollo, laureate, facing.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 2.]
|ΜΑΥΣΣΩΛΛΟ Zeus Labraundos,
armed with spear and double-axe,
walking to r.
Tetradrachm AR 233 grs. (Fig. 306)
Drachm AR 56.6 grs.
On the death of Mausolus in B.C. 353 his widow Artemisia succeeded him, and erected to his memory the famous Mausoleum. She died in B.C. 351, but struck no coins in her own name.
Hidrieus, B.C. 351-344. This dynast was the second son of Heca- tomnus, and on the death of Artemisia he succeeded to the Satrapy of Caria, marrying, at the same time, his young sister Ada. His coins are tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, similar to those of his brother Mausolus, inscr. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 5-7), also quarter-drachms, obv. Head of Apollo facing, rev. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ or ΙΔΡΙ between the rays of a star, as on the coins of Miletus (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 8). On the death of Hidrieus, B.C. 344, his widow Ada
Pixodarus, B.C. 340-334, the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, obtained possession of the satrapy in B.C. 340, his sister Ada retiring to the inland fortress of Alinda, which she continued to hold until Alexan- der’s invasion. Pixodarus struck didrachms, drachms, and quarter- drachms similar to those of Hidrieus. On some specimens his name is written ΠΙΞΩΔΑΡΟΥ. This marks the date of the introduction of the spelling, in full, of the diphthong ΟΥ in Caria.
Pixodarus seems also to have been compelled, on pressure, to strike a few gold coins in his own name, which is a sign of a relaxation of direct Persian control, for the coinage of gold money was one of the cherished prerogatives of the Great King, never formally delegated to a Satrap.
The smaller gold coins of Pixodarus, which are of undoubted authen- ticity, are the following :—
|Head of Apollo l., laureate.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 11.]
|ΠΙΞΩΔΑ Zeus Labraundos standing
r., as on silver coins.
AV Hemihekton, 10.8 grs.
|Similar.||Π Ι Double-axe. |
AV 1/24 Stater 5.2 grs.[Ibid., Pl. XXVIII. 12.]
The specimens of the larger denominations, Hemistater and Hecte (similar in type to the Hemihekton, except that the head of Apollo faces to the right), in the British Museum collection (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 9, 10), are not altogether beyond suspicion.
Orontobates or Rhoontopates, B.C. 334-333. This Satrap married Ada, the daughter of Pixodarus, whose hand had been successively offered to Philip Arrhidaeus and to Alexander. The account of his defence of Halicarnassus against Alexander is given by Arrian (Anab. i. 23; ii. 5, 7), who calls him Orontobates. His coins are rare, and tetradrachms only are known. They resemble those of his predecessor, but bear apparently the inscription ΡΟΟΝΤΟΠΑΤΟ (Babelon, Perses Achém., lxxxviii. Pl. X. 17).
Uncertain Satrapal Coins of Caria (?).
For the staters of Rhodian (?) weight, obv. King of Persia half kneeling, rev. Galloping Satrap, see infra, under Persia.
ISLANDS OFF CARIA
Astypalaea, midway between Cos and Amorgos, was a port on the trade-route between Phoenicia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Cnidus, Cos, and Euro- pean Greece on the west. Its name occurs in the Athenian quota-lists, B.C. 447-436, and in the latter year the annual sum at which it was assessed amounted to 12,000 drachms (about £480). Astypalaea struck small bronze coins in the third, second, and first centuries B.C. Inscr.,
Calymna. To this island, which lay off the coast of Caria, some ten miles west of Myndus and north of Cos, are usually attributed the very archaic silver staters of the Babylonian standard.
|Rude archaic head of bearded hero, in crested helmet, with vizor and cheek- piece. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 8.]||Lyre (chelys) with seven strings and
tortoise-shell bowl, within an incuse
adapted to the form of the lyre.
AR 162.2 grs.
In the Greenwell collection was a specimen with the letter Α on the helmet and Λ (?) behind the head (N. C., 1890, Pl. III. 24). These re- markable coins can hardly be later than circ. B.C. 600, and their attribu- tion to Calymna is somewhat doubtful. It may be that they are of Euboean or Macedonian origin, possibly of Aeneia in Chalcidice. It has been pointed out by Babelon (Traité, ii. 1, p. 437) that in fabric they differ from all other archaic coins struck in any of the Aegaean islands or in Asia Minor.
|Young male head in crested helmet,
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 9-11.]
|ΚΑΛΥΜΝΙΟΝ Lyre (kithara) in
AR Rhodian didr. 100 grs.
AR Dr. 50 grs.
AR ½ Dr. 23 grs.
There are also small bronze coins of similar types.
Carpathos. This island appears to have been of some importance in early times. Its chief city, Poseidium, struck silver staters in the sixth century B.C. resembling in fabric those of the ancient Rhodian cities, Lindus, Ialysus, and Camirus. All these places ceased to coin money when Rhodus was founded, B.C. 408. Poseidium was probably the chief city of the ‘Ετεοκαρπαθιοι εκ Καρπαθου, who appear separately in the Athenian Quota-Lists as paying 1,000 drachms, the same amount at which the people of ‘Αρκεσεια Καρπαθου are rated in contemporary lists.
|ΠΟΣ Two dolphins in opposite direc-
tions, and a third small fish beneath
them; all in dotted and linear square.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 14, 15.]
|Incuse square, divided by broad band
into two oblong parts, with rough
AR Stater 215 grs.
AR Third 70 grs.
Cos. Concerning the history, epigraphy, and numismatics of this im- portant island, see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos, 1891). According to tradition the earliest Greek inhabitants of Cos came from Epidaurus, bringing with them the worship of Asklepios, for which the island was afterwards celebrated. Herakles is also an appropriate type on the coins of a city which was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis. The origin of the Crab as the special emblem of Cos is unexplained. The fact that it is frequently accompanied, on coins, with the Heraklean club, while on certain coins of Imperial times (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5) it is seen at the feet of Herakles himself, has been cited to prove its con- nexion with the cultus of Herakles. This is, however, very doubtful (see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, 441).
The coinage of Cos falls into the following periods :—
|Crab. [B. M. C., Ion., p. 6, No. 29.]||Incuse square, quartered.
EL. 1.9 grs. = 1/96 Stater
|Crab. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 1.]||Rough incuse square, beside which (as
countermark) a small incuse square.
AR Stater 189.5 grs.
|Crab. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 2.]||Rough incuse square.
AR Diobol 25 grs.
AR Obol(?) 10.7 grs.
After a long interval of perhaps nearly a hundred years coins were once more struck in the island, and it is remarkable that, while the Crab is still the distinctive local emblem, the Aeginetic stater is now replaced by a tetradrachm of Attic weight.
|ΚΟΣ, ΚΩΣ or ΚΩΙΟΝ Naked Disko- bolos, with tripod behind him (Fig. 307). [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 3-5.]||Crab in incuse square.
AR Tetr. 253 grs.
The agonistic type of these coins clearly refers to the games held in honour of the Triopian Apollo in which the cities of the Dorian Penta- polis all took part, the first prize being a brazen tripod which the victor dedicated to the god (Herod. i. 144).
After these fifth century issues of Euboic-Attic tetradrachms there follows another long interval during which no coins seem to have been
|Head of bearded or young Herakles in
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 6.]
|ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab and club in dotted
square. Magistrate’s name in nomi-
AR Tetradr. 240 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 9.]||
AR Didrachm 105 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 10, 12.]||ΚΩΙΟΝ Veiled female head and magis-
AR Didr. and Dr.
|Head of bearded Herakles, or Female
[Ibid., Pl. XXX. 13-15.]
|ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab, club, and magistrate's
During this period Tetradrachms, Didrachms, Drachms, Hemidrachms, and bronze coins are plentiful, and a head of the youthful Herakles, of unmistakeable Lysippean style, supersedes (except on the drachms) the bearded head prevalent on the earlier coins. On the tetradrachms the bow in its case replaces the club under the crab. For a list of the magistrates’ names see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos) and Imhoof (Kl. M., 165).
To this period belong the Attic tetradrachms of Alexander’s types; symbols, Crab and club, and magistrates’ names or monograms (Paton and Hicks, Inscr. of Cos, p. 311, and Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1153). The Coan or Rhodian weight was, however, retained for the didrachms and smaller coins.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin, facing. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXI. 13.]||ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab, club, and magistrate's
name in dotted square.
AR 105 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles r., in lion- skin. [Ibid., Pl. XXXI. 15.]||Id., but no dotted square. |
AR 50 grs.
On the smaller silver and bronze coins the rev. type is a Bow in case and a club (Ibid., Pl. XXXI. 16-18).
A complete change in the type and fabric of the coinage took place both at Cos and Rhodus about B.C. 166. At Cos the ancient Herakleian types are now generally abandoned in favour of those relating to Askle- pios, whose cult had gradually eclipsed that of Herakles, and who had come to be the representative divinity of the island. The most remark- able coin of this age is, however, the unique tetradrachm in the Hunter Collection :—
|Head of Aphrodite, wearing myrtle- wreath bound with diadem, and neck- lace. [Macdonald, Hunter Cat., II., Pl. LIV. 18.]||ΚΩΙΩΝ Asklepios leaning on serpent
staff. Magistrate’s name ΝΙΚΟ-
AR Tetr. 255.2 grs.
The smaller silver coins of this period are as follows :—
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin r. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 1.]||ΚΩΙΩΝ Shallow incuse square con-
taining crab and club and magis-
AR Drachm 47 grs.
|Head of Asklepios r. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 2-5.]||ΚΩΙΩΝ ΚΩΙ, ΚΩ, or ΚΩΝ Shallow
incuse square containing coiled ser-
pent and one or two magistrates’
names, sometimes with title ΠΡΟC-
AR Drachms of reduced wt.
or Tetrobols 34 grs.
The bronze coins resemble those of the previous period.
The coins of this period, which extends from the time of Sulla to the tyranny of Nikias, are not numerous. The silver pieces are small. Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Lyre; Head of Asklepios, rev. Serpent staff or Coiled serpent. The corresponding bronze coins of the same time are of larger dimensions (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 7-12).
During this period the island was governed for a time by a tyrant named Nikias, concerning whom very little is known (Strab. xiv. 658). His portrait, however, has been handed down to us on his bronze coins.
|ΝΙΚΙΑΣ Beardless head r., diademed.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 13.]
|ΚΩΙΩΝ Head of Asklepios and magis-
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins. Augustus to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΚΩΙΩΝ. Chief types—Heads of ΑΣΚΛΑΠΙΟΣ; Poseidon; Herakles; Ο ΔΑΜΟC; A ΒΟΥΛΑ; ΞΕΝΟ- ΦΩΝ (Xenophon the Physician, who practised in Rome in the reign of Claudius); ΞΕΝΟΦΟWΝ ΙΕΡΕΥC (the same as Priest of Asklepios (?)); ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑΤΗC (the Physician) seated; Tyche, &c. Reverse types— ΕΡΡΑΝΑ Bust of Eirene; Lyre (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 1); Two doves drinking, perched on the rim of a vase (see Blanchet, in Rev. Num., 1907, p. lxxxiii); Herakles holding infant Telephos (?), at his feet, crab (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5); Hygieia; City Tyche (?) to front. Magistrates’ names are not uncommon, and are in the nominative, sometimes accompanied by a patronymic.
Alliance coins with Halicarnassus (Caracalla and Geta) struck at the latter place (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLIV. 4), and Miletus (Ant. Pius) (N. C., 1904, Pl. XVI. 12).
Megiste (?). Megiste was a small island almost united to the main- land of Lycia some twenty miles east of Patara. A few inscriptions in
|Head of Helios with short hair l., on
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 1-3.]
|Μ Ε Rose with bud on either side.
AR Dr. 48 grs.
|Similar head r.||Μ Ε Rose. |
Nisyros was a small volcanic island lying midway between the Triopian promontory and the southern point of Cos, from which it was said to have been torn off by Poseidon with his trident, and hurled upon the giant Polybotes (Apollod., i. 6. 2).
|Head of Helios with short hair l., on
[Millingen, Syll.>, Pl. II. 50.]
|Ν Ι Rose with bud on either side.
AR Dr. 47 grs.
This coin may be Rhodian, see supra, under Megiste (?).
|Head of Artemis(?) r., wearing stephane. [Z. f. N., i., Pl. IV. 18.]||ΝΙΣΥΡΙΟΝ Poseidon, seated to front
on rock, his r. resting on trident.
AR Dr. (?) 35 grs.
|Head of Poseidon.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 4.]
|ΝΙ Dolphin and trident.
|Head of Zeus Ammon.||Id.
|Female head, with stephane.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 5.]
|ΝΙΣΥ Similar. |
There was a temple of Poseidon in the town of Nisyros (Strab. x. 489).
Müller (Num. d'Alex., nos. 1168-9) ascribes to Nisyros some second century tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types with a bucranium as adjunct symbol. As this symbol is no longer accepted as one of the coin-types of Nisyros, Müller’s attribution of the Alexandrine tetra- drachms in question is certainly erroneous.
Rhodes. The admirable situation and climate of Rhodes doubtless contributed to make the island a great maritime power, and the commercial activity of the Rhodian merchants soon raised it to a position of wealth and influence unsurpassed by that of any other state in Greece.
The Rhodian coinage falls into two main divisions: (i) that of the three ancient towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, down to B.C. 408,
Camirus Rhodi, on the western coast of the island, was the most important of the three independent cities. The fact that its coins follow the Aeginetic standard indicates that it traded chiefly with the Aegaean islands, Crete, and Peloponnesus, where the Aeginetic standard prevailed.
There are also small electrum coins of Camirus, as well as of Ialysus and Lindus, which show that they had dealings with the Ionian coast-towns, where, in the sixth century B.C., electrum was the standard currency.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 6.]
|Incuse square, within which a deeper
small incuse depression.
EL. 1/24 Stater 8.1 grs.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 7.]
|Two oblong incuses, separated by broad
AR Stater 189.6 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 10, 11.]||Id.
AR Drachm 93.1 grs.
AR Tritemorion 9.1 grs.
AR Hemiobol 7.6 grs.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 12.]
|ΚΑΜΙ ΡΕΩΝ in two oblong incuses,
separated by broad band.
AR Stater 175.2 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 13.]||Κ Α in two oblong incuses.
AR Trihemiobol 18.3 grs.
|Rose. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 14.]||Κ Α Griffin’s head in incuse square.
AR Obol 14.2 grs.
|Fig-leaf. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 15.]||Κ Α in two quarters of a wheel. |
The fig-leaf may have been chosen as a coin-type as the chief product of the island, but it may also have been originally a religious symbol (cf. Dionysos συκιτης or συκατης at Lacedaemon (Ath. 78 c.) and Zeus συκασιος (Eust. 1572, 58)).
Ialysus Rhodi, in the north of the island, about ten miles west of the later city of Rhodus, does not seem to have issued money before the early part of the fifth century B.C., although there are some small electrum pieces (wts. 15, 7.3, and 3.7 grs.), resembling the silver coins, which may be somewhat earlier. (See Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., Nos. 3997- 4000.) Its first silver coins are of the Phoenician standard, suggesting that its commercial relations must have been rather with the mainland of Asia Minor than with the Aegaean islands.
|Forepart of winged boar.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 1, 2.]
|ΙΕΛΥΣΙΟΝ and ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Eagle's
head in dotted and incuse square, in
one corner of which is a floral orna-
AR Tetradr. 229.4 grs.
|ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Forepart of winged boar;
[Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 3.]
|ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Eagle’s head in dotted and
AR Tetradr. 223.4 grs.
AR 16.1 grs. and 7.8 grs.
|Forepart of winged boar.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 4.]
|No inscr. Eagle’s head in dotted and
incuse square, in one corner of which
is a floral ornament.
AR Drachm 75.9 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 5.]||Id.
AR ½ Dr. 3 1.6 grs.
|Forepart of winged horse.
[Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 6.]
|Α Ι Rose in dotted and incuse square.
AR ½ Obol 6.5 grs.
The types and the fabric of the coins of Ialysus have something in common with those of Clazomenae, Lycia, Cyprus, and Cyrene, and they differ remarkably from those of the two other Rhodian cities, Camirus and Lindus (B. M. C., Car., ci).
Lindus Rhodi. The city of Lindus, on the east coast of Rhodes, struck, like Camirus and Ialysus, a few small electrum coins, resembling the silver money, which seem to be as early as the sixth century B.C., wts. 14.3 and 11.8 grs. (Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., nos. 4002-3). The silver coins of Lindus, like those of Ialysus, follow the Phoenician standard. The Lion’s head, the prevailing type of the Lindian coinage, may be merely a copy of the widely-circulating Cnidian coins, in which case it possesses no local significance. The peculiar form of the incuse reverses of the coins of both Lindus and Camirus, consisting of a square divided into two oblong halves by a broad band, is original and hardly ever met with outside Rhodes except at Poseidium in the neighbouring island of Carpathos:—
|Lion’s head, with open jaws and tuft of
hair on forehead.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 7-9]
|Incuse square, divided into two oblong
halves by broad band, on which
ΛΙΝΔΙ is sometimes legible.
AR Tetradr. 213 grs.
AR Diobol 16.1 grs.
|Forepart of horse.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 10.]
|Incuse square, containing lion’s head
with open jaws.
AR Tetrobol 33.2 grs.
AR Obol 7.9 grs.
Some specimens show a faint inscription, apparently ΛΙΝΔΙ, in front of the horse.
Rhodus. In or about the year B.C. 408 the three independent Rhodian towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, combined to found the new city of Rhodus near the extreme northern point of the island. As the people of all three towns claimed descent from Helios, to whom indeed the whole island was sacred (Pindar, Ol. vii. 54), the head of the Sun-god
The coinage of Rhodus falls into the following classes :—
|Head of Helios, facing (rough work).
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI. 1.]
|ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose between two bunches
of grapes, in incuse square.
AR Tetradr. 258.8 grs.
AR ½ Dr.
|Id.||Ρ Ο Rose in incuse square.
AR ½ Dr.
|Id.|| „ Head of nymph, Rhodos, to r., in
incuse square. |
AR ½ Dr.
Next in order follows the Federal coinage of the ‘Symmachy’, common to Rhodus, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, which dates from Conon’s victory at Cnidus, B.C. 394. In weight the coins of this alliance consist of Aeginetic didrachms of very light weight (178 grs.), which may also be regarded as tridrachms of the reduced Attic standard (drachm 60 grs.) adopted by Rhodus about this time. The types of the Federal coin of Rhodus are as follows :—
|ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling ser- pents.||Ρ Ο Rose in incuse square. [B. M. C.,
Car., Pl. XLV. 2.]|
AR 175 grs.
Of the numerous full-face coins of bold and sculpturesque style issued from the Rhodian mint during the greater part of the fourth century the most perfect specimen is the unrivalled gold stater in the British Museum (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI. 5).
|Head of Helios, facing.||ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose with bud to r., and
grapes to l.; in field, Ε; all in
incuse square (Fig. 308)
AV Stater 132.6 grs.
This is not only one of the most beautiful but it is also one of the earliest pure gold staters struck at any Greek town. A few only of the Lampsacene staters can claim priority in date.
Tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, resembling the gold stater in type, but of coarser work, together with didrachms and diobols with a head of Helios in profile, belong also to this period. All these coins have various symbols and letters beside the Rose on the reverses (B. M. C., Car., pp. 231-4).
In this period the radiate type of the head of Helios makes its first appearance on some of the full-face didrachms and on quarter-drachms with the head in profile; and small bronze coins occur for the first time, the obv. type of which is a female head, probably that of the nymph Rhodos. The magistrates’ names on the larger coins are at full length in the nominative case.
The coinage of Rhodes seems to have been unaffected by the campaign of Alexander, and it was not until after the famous siege of the city by Demetrius Poliorcetes that any great modification of the types was introduced. It can, however, hardly be questioned that the next series of Rhodian coins, which exhibits the head of Helios radiate (Fig. 309) on both tetradrachms and didrachms, falls into the period of the greatest prosperity of Rhodes (B.C. 304-166). This radiate head may serve to give us some idea of the style and general aspect of the features of the colossal statue by Chares set up in B.C. 283 beside the harbour of Rhodus, and not, according to a fanciful modern notion, astride across its entrance (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 137 sqq.).
The unradiate head is retained during this period on the drachms and smaller coins. The inscr. on the reverses is either ΡΟΔΙΟΝ or Ρ Ο, and there are magistrates’ names, each with a separate symbol beside the rose. The Rhodian drachms appear to have circulated widely also on the mainland, and some without the letters Ρ Ο were certainly struck on the continent; cf. a specimen with the mint-mark of Miletus (B. M. C.,
The bronze coins of this period have a head of Zeus or a veiled female head in place of that of Helios on the obv. (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 15-18).
At the conclusion of the peace, B.C. 189, after the battle of Magnesia, Rhodes obtained a large accession of territory on the mainland, including Lycia (exclusive of Telmessus) and the greater part of Caria. With the exception of the magnificent gold stater above described (circ. B.C. 400) all the other known gold coins of Rhodes belong to the second century B.C.
|Head of Helios, radiate, facing, without neck. [B. M. From Montagu Coll., Sale Cat., ii. 283, Pl. III.]||Ρ Ο Rose and bud, above [ΑΓΗ]ΣΙ-
ΔΑΜΟΣ; symbol, Artemis running
with torch: all in dotted circle.
AV Stater 131.5 grs.
The magistrate’s name and symbol on this unique stater are identical with those on the didrachm (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVIII. 4) and drachm (Hunter Cat., ii. 439, 21).
|Head of Helios, radiate, facing. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 19.]||Ρ Ο Rose and bud in shallow incuse
square; above, magistrate’s name;
changing symbol in field.
AV Stater 131.2 grs
|Id. [Ibid., p. 272.]||Id.
AV ½ Stater 65.6 grs.
|Head of Rhodos r., radiate, wearing
stephane, ear-ring and necklace.|
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 20.]
|Ρ Ο Rose and bud; above, magistrate's
name; changing symbol; all in dotted
AV ¼ Stater 33.4 grs.
Rhodes, after B.C. 189, also struck some gold Philippi with Ρ Ο and adjunct symbol, rose (Müller, 308); and Lysimachian gold staters (Müller, Lysim., 450, 451), together with Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, 1154-67). The magistrates’ names on these coins are identical with those on the coins of the Rhodian type.
In B.C. 167 the Romans deprived Rhodes of her territory on the main- land. All the cities hitherto tributary to Rhodes were declared free, and the Rhodian merchants suffered in consequence a severe loss. The erection of Delos at this time into a free port was also greatly detrimental to Rhodian commerce. It is probable that the cessation of the issue of tetradrachms from the Rhodian mint is coincident with these political and commercial reverses, and that, driven to abandon the issue of large coins, Rhodes strove to maintain her credit by restoring her drachms more nearly to their original weight, and for the sake of distinguishing the new drachms of heavier weight from the debased drachms, still current,
|Head of Helios r., radiate.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XL. 1-11.]
|Shallow incuse square containing Ρ Ο,
Rose with bud, magistrate’s name
and changing symbol.
AR Dr. 50.4 grs.
|Head of Helios, radiate, facing.
[Ibid., Pl. XL. 12-15.]
AR ½ Dr. 22.5 grs.
|Head of Helios r., radiate.
[Ibid., Pl. XL. 16.]
|Ρ Ο Rose with bud and changing
symbol; all in dotted circle.
AR ¼ Dr. 12.7 grs.
|Head of Helios r., radiate.
[Ibid., Pl. XL. 17, 18.]
|Ρ Ο Rose with bud and changing sym-
bols; all in dotted circle.
Æ 1.15 and .5
|Head of Rhodos r., radiate.
[Ibid., Pl. XL. 19, 20.]
|Shallow incuse square containing Ρ Ο
and Rose. |
During the revolt of Asia from Roman rule, B.C. 88-84, Rhodes was one of the few states which refused to join Mithradates, and when Sulla with the help of the Rhodian fleet passed over into Asia and quelled the revolt, the Rhodians were rewarded for their loyalty to Rome by the gift of freedom and by the restoration of a portion of their possessions on the mainland. It is to this period of renewed prosperity that I would attribute the last issue of Rhodian silver coins. These pieces are drachms ranging in weight from 68.4 to 61.7 grs. They are thus slightly heavier than the Attic drachms, and the heavier specimens might be accepted as thirds of the contemporary Ptolemaic tetradrachms of about 210 grs.
|Head of Helios, three-quarter face to-
wards r., with winged diadem, ends
tied under chin.
[Paris; B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLV. 3.]
|Ρ Ο Rose with bud; above. ΓΟΡΓΟΣ;
symbol, star; all in dotted circle.
AR 68.25 grs.
|Head of Helios, radiate, three-quarter
face towards l.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 1.]
|Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front; below,
palm; all in dotted circle.
AR 68.4 grs.
|Head of Helios, radiate, three-quarter
face towards r.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 2.]
|Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front; magis-
trates’ names and varying symbols.
AR 66.7 grs.
As these heavy drachms are rare, it would seem that Rhodes ceased to coin silver before the middle of the first century B.C., while the unusually large size and heavy weight of the bronze pieces which succeed them indicate that these latter were intended to take the place of silver money, and that they can hardly have been tokens of merely nominal value.
|Head of Helios, radiate, facing.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 3, 4.]
|Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front, within
an oak-wreath. Magistrates’ names.
|Head of Helios r., radiate.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 5-7.]
|Ρ Ο or ΡΟΔΙΩΝ Full-blown rose to
front; magistrates’ names and sym-
bols; all in dotted circle. |
The wavering policy of Rhodes during the civil war between Pompey and Caesar led to the final ruin of her commerce in B.C. 42, when Cassius Parmensis destroyed the greater part of her fleet and struck a fatal blow at her maritime supremacy. Although the Rhodian silver money continued to be current long after it had ceased to be issued, bronze gradually took its place as the chief medium of circulation, and the large bronze coins superseded the silver drachms. Somewhat later, under one or other of the earlier emperors, one of those reductions in the value of the current coins took place which I have elsewhere noticed (B. M. C., Car., p. cxvii), and the large bronze coin which, from its types, I have assumed to have been at first equivalent to the drachm was now distinguished as a didrachm and denominated as such by its inscription ΡΟΔΙΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ or ΡΟΔΙΟΙ ΥΠΕΡ ΤΩΝ CΕ- ΒΑCΤΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ.
The chief types on the large bronze coins are heads of Dionysos unradiate or radiate, and heads of Helios radiate, in profile. The reverse type is usually Nike. Magistrates’ names in the genitive case with επι and often with title Ταμιας, the Financial Treasurer and not the Roman Provincial Quaestor. On a coin of Ant. Pius is a figure of ΠΟCΕΙΔΩΝ ΑCΦΑΛΕΙΟC standing before altar (Eckhel, D. N., ii. 605). Poseidon Asphaleios was the god who presided over the safety of ships and ports (cf. Strab. 59).
Syme (?). Concerning the coins assigned by Waddington to this island and by Imhoof to Syangela see Syangela, supra, p. 625.
Telos, a small island between Rhodes and Nisyros.
|Head of Zeus.
[Mion. iii. 430, 289.]
|Head of Athena, r. [Z. f. N., i. 151.]|| „ „
|ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ Head of Athena, facing, with aegis outspread behind it.|| „ „ and magistrate’s name.
[Imh., Gr. M., 154, Pl. X. 17.]
|Head of Athena, facing, in helmet with three crests.||ΤΗΛΙ Crab. [Ibid.]|
The inscription ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ occurs also on contemporary coins of Cnidus (see supra, p. 616). The heads of Zeus and Athena are probably those of the Zeus Πολιευς and Athena Πολιας mentioned in Telian inscriptions (C. I. G. xii. (iii) 40).