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[Waddington, Babelon, and Reinach, Rec. gén. des Monn. gr. d'Asie Mineure, ‘Pont et Paphla- gonie’; Wroth, Brit. Mus. Cat., Pontus, &c.; Imhoof-Blumer, Griechsche Münzen, &c.]

Koinon of Pontus. After the formation of Pontus Galaticus (B.C. 2 and A.D. 1), the towns of this territory probably formed a KoinonΚοινον under the headship of Amasia. When, in its turn, Pontus Polemoniacus was incorporated, it formed a new KoinonΚοινον, of which the capital was Neo- caesareia. The two KoinaΚοινα afterwards became one, and the coins of the Koinon PontouΚοινον Ποντου were struck at Neocaesareia (q. v.). The following were also probably struck at Neocaesareia:—rev. ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ, Tetra- style temple, of M. Aurelius, also of L. Verus; with dates reckoned from A.D. 64-5, the year of the annexation of Pontus Polemoniacus. (On the Koinon see Rec. gén., p. 25 f.)


Amasia, the birthplace of Mithradates the Great and of Strabo, was a strongly fortified town on the river Iris. Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΑΜΑΣΕΙΑΣ.

Imperial—Domitian to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΑΜΑCΙΑC, usually with addition of various surnames, honorific titles, dates, &c., e. g. ΑΔΡ (Hadriana), CЄV (Severiana), ΑΝΤ (Antoniniana), ΑΛЄΞ (Alexandriana), ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΠΟΝΤΟΥ, ΠΡΩΤΗC ΤΟΥ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ, ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, mostly abbreviated. On a coin of Sept. Severus occurs the legend ЄΡΜΗC ΚΤΙCΑC ΤΗΝ ΠΟΛΙΝ, showing that Hermes was revered as oekist. Era begins B.C. 2 (Z. f. N., 1906, p. 342). Types, A large altar, often burning, with a tree beside it; on or above altar, victim, eagle, chariot; probably altar of Zeus Stratios (Rec. gén., p. 27; Cumont, Studia Pontica, 1906, p. 177); View of Amasia (B. M. C., p. xvii); Aphrodite and Ares (Imh., G. M., p. 560, No. 3); Tyche; Seated Hades; Hades and Kerberos (Rec. gén., No. 69).


Amisus (Eski Samsun), next after Sinope the most flourishing Greek port on the south coast of the Euxine, was recolonized from Athens, probably in the middle of the fifth century, and its name changed to Peiraeeus.

Fourth century B.C. Persic standard.
Female head in turreted stephane. ΠΕΙΡΑ, ΠΕΙΡΑΕ, ΠΕΙΡΑΙ, ΠΕΙΡΑΙΩΝ, Owl on shield. Magistrates’ names and symbols [Rec. gén., p. 44 f.]
AR Dr. 86 grs.


After the time of Alexander, the town issued silver of similar types but without the town-name (drachms and triobols of Rhodian weight). Traces of the authority of the Pontic kings are found on these coins, as in ΒΑ(silissaesσιλισσης) ΛΑ(odikaesοδικης), also on the Æ of the same period (Rec. gén.).

Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator. Inscr., ΑΜΙΣΟΥ (rarely ΣΑΜΙ- ΣΟΥ and ΣΑΜΙΣΟΗΣ, Z. f. N., ii. p. 29). In addition to the civic coinages of Mithradates, described under his name, infra, the following were struck at Amisus:—obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Quiver with strap; obv. Head of Dionysos, rev. Cista and thyrsos; obv. Cista and thyrsos, rev. Panther holding stag’s head; obv. Head of Dionysos, rev. Quiver; obv. Female head in wolf’s skin (Amazon Lykastia ?), rev. Herakles, Nike (see Imhoof, G. M., p. 570); obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Roma and Eirene (?), circ. B.C. 84 (see G. M., p. 569).

In the first century B.C. the Proconsuls of Bithynia, C. Papirius Carbo, B.C. 61-59, and C. Caecilius Cornutus, B.C. 56 (G. M., p. 562), place their names upon Æ coins: obv. ΑΜΙΣΟΥ Head of Roma, rev. Roma. (ΡΩΜΗ) seated on shields holding Nike.

Imperial—Augustus to Saloninus (some quasi-autonomous, G. M., p. 570 f.). There are AR from Hadrian to Antoninus, wt. 144, 96, 48 grs. (cf. G. M., p. 572). Inscr., ΑΜΙCΟΥ, nearly always with ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΑC added. Types, Athena, Asklepios, Demeter, Dionysos, Poseidon, Hermes, &c.; Capricorn; Tyche of Amisus placing rudder on head of Thalassa (Imh., Kleinas. M., i. p. 1, No. 4); River-god ΘЄΡ- ΜΩΔΩΝ (R. N., 1900, p. 126); Temple and altar with mountains behind (Imh., G. M., p. 571). Era dates from autumn of B.C. 32, at which time Amisus was freed from its tyrant Straton by Augustus (Z. f. N., xx. p. 257; Pauly-Wissowa, s. v. ‘Aera’, p. 644; Rec. gén., p. 44).

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Cabeira (Niksar), in the valley of the Lycus, was the chief seat of the wor- ship of the god Mên Pharnakou. Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΚΑΒΗΡΩΝ. Circ. B.C. 65 the name was changed by Pompey to Dios- polis, and Æ inscribed ΔΙΑΣ appear to have been issued with Mithradatic types: obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle; obv. Head of Dionysos, rev. Cista and thyrsos (Imh., G. M., p. 574; but see infra under Dia in Bithynia). In Im- perial times it bore the name Neocaesareia. Imperial (see B. M. C.; Imhoof, G. M.; Rec. gén.) Trajan to Gallienus. Also quasi-auton. of Do- mitian. Inscr., ΝЄΟΚΑΙCΑΡЄΙΑC; ΝЄΟΚΑΙC; also ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΠΟΝΤΙΥ (see supra, Koinon of Pontus); ΜΗΤΡΟΠ; ΑΔΡ; ΔΙC ΝΕΩΚΟΡ. Games, ΑΚΤΙΑ. Era, Oct., A.D. 64. Types, Temple, within which, some- times, statue, radiate bust, altar. Agonistic table, wreath, &c. Dios- kuri standing at altar. Athena (with name of Roman official Aufidius Umber; Imhoof, Kleinas. M., ii. p. 499). Group of Tyche of Neocae- sareia with river-god at her feet and five female figures = the cities of the Koinon PontouΚοινον Ποντου with their metropolis Neocaesareia (see B. M. C.; Imhoof, G. M., p. 578; Rec. gén., p. 86).


Cerasus (Kiresoun), on the coast west of Trapezus. Perhaps the same town as Pharnaceia (q. v.) (Rec. gén., p. 74 and p. 99). Imperial, Æ Hadrian to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΚЄΡΑCΟΥΝΤΙ ΩΝ. Era, Oct.,

A.D. 64. Types: Herakles standing; Galley; Seated Goddess with cornu- copiae; Pan, &c.

Chabacta, in Strabo’s time, was a dependency of Amisus. Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΧΑΒΑΚΤΩΝ.


Comana (near Gumenek), on the Iris, called ‘Pontica’ to distinguish it from the Cappadocian Comana, was famed for its cultus of the goddess Mâ or Enyo, the high priest of whose temple ranked next in dignity to the king of Pontus (cf. R. N., 1886, p. 443). Under the Romans the place bore the additional name of Hierocaesareia.

Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΚΟΜΑΝΩΝ. Imperial and quasi-autonomous—Time of Caligula, obv. Head of Enyo, rev. ΚΟΜΑΝΩΝ Club (Z. f. N., xx. p. 261, No. 1); Nerva, rev. ΚΟΜΑΝΩΝ, Club; Sept. Severus and family, Inscr., ΙЄΡΟΚΑΙCΑ ΚΟΜ ΑΝЄ(ΩΝ), Types; Temple, within which Enyo radiate, standing, holding shield and club (Z. f. N., xx. p. 262, No. 2); also, Nike in temple. Era dates from Oct., A.D. 34 (N. C., 1902, p. 2; 1904, p. 101 f.; cf. Rec. gén., p. 78).


Gaziura (Turkhal), on the Iris, one of the residences of the kings of Pontus, but deserted in the time of Strabo (xii. 547). For the silver coins of the dynast Ariarathes I, struck there, see Kings of Cappadocia. Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΓΑΖΙΟΥΡΩΝ.


Haemilium (?) or AEmilium, known only from coins. Æ of first cen- tury B.C. Obv. Head of Tyche of city, rev. Fulmen; above, Crescent and star; obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Similar. Size .9. Inscr., ΑΙΜΙΛΙΟΥ. (Z. f. N., xx. p. 271; Rec. gén., p. 26.)


Laodiceia. Modern Ladik, between Amisus and Amasia. Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΙΑΣ. Types: Aegis, rev. Nike walking; Head of Ares, rev. Sword in sheath; Head of young Dionysos, rev. Thyrsos (Z. f. N., xx. p. 263; cf. R. N., 1900, p. 228).


Neocaesareia. See Cabeira.


Nicopolis ad Lycum (near Piourkh, PurgosΠυργος). Founded by Pompey, circ. B.C. 65, in memory of his victory over Mithradates Eupator (Imh., Kl. M., i. 3; Rec. gén., p. 97; Cumont, Studia Pontica, 1906, p. 306). Imperial—Trajan; Hadrian. Inscr., ΝЄΙΚΟΠΟΛЄWC, and ЄΤΟVC ‘34’ and ‘42’; also ΝΙΚΟΠΟΛΙΤWΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝ...; cf. C. I. G., 4189. Types: Zeus seated holding Nike; Nike; Wreath; Serpent on Altar; Young head, laur. Era, Oct., A.D. 64.


Peiraeeus. See Amisus.

Pharnaceia, on the Black Sea, west of Trapezus (perhaps the same town as Cerasus; see Rec. gén., pp. 74, 99). Æ, Second or first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΡΝΑΚΕΩΝ, Bust of Mên, rev. Star (Imh., Kleinas. M., i. p. 5); Bust of Zeus, rev. Zebu. Also Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator, Bust of Zeus, rev. ΑΡΝΑΚΕΙΑΣ, Eagle on fulmen. (According to R. N., 1900, p. xx, Imperial of Caracalla; cf. Imhoof, op. cit., ii. p. 500).



Pimolisa. See infra under Paphlagonia.

Sebasteia (Siwas), on the Halys. Imperial—L. Verus to Valerian. Inscr., CЄΒΑCΤΗΝΩ, CЄΒΑCΤΙΑC ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC. Types: Roma seated; Demeter. Era begins between B.C. 2-1 and A.D. 1-2, probably B.C. 2-1. (Imh., Kleinas. M., p. 5; Rec. gén., p. 101.)

Sebastopolis-Heracleopolis (Sulu-Seraï), on the Scylax. Imperial— Trajan to Gallienus. Inscr., CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛЄΩC (Trajan); later, CЄΒΑCΤΟ. ΗΡΑΚ., CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟ. ΗΡΑΚΑЄΟΠΟ., CЄΒΑCΤΟ. ΗΡΑΚΛЄΟΠ. Types: Nearly all relate to Herakles and his labours; Statue of Herakles in temple, &c. See Imh., G. M., &c. Roman Magistrate, P. C. Ruso (N. Z., 1891, p. 71). Era dates from B.C. 3 (October). (N. C., 1902, p. 184; 1904, p. 101; Z. f. N., 1906, p. 339; cf. Rec. gén., p. 102.)

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Taulara (Taourla, R. N., 1900, p. 230). Æ of reign of Mithradates Eupator (q. v.). Inscr., ΤΑΥΛΑΡΩΝ.


Trapezus (Trebizond), on the south coast of the Euxine. The rev. type of the following coins, a table, is obviously a type parlant (trapezaτραπεζα). Fourth century B.C. Persic standard.
Male head, with close beard (Hermes ?).
[Num. Chron., 1871, Pl. VI. 3, 4.]
ΤΡΑ Table, on which bunch of grapes
AR Dr. 88 grs.; Diob. 22 grs., with- out grapes.

Imperial—Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΤΡΑΠЄΖΟΥΝΤΙΩΝ. Era 64 A.D. Types: Hermes, Dionysos, Sarapis, Tyche, &c.; especially Mithras, who is often represented on horseback: see Imh., G. M., p. 582 f.; Z. f. N., xx. 266; and Rec. gén., p. 107, for the Mithraeum of Trapezus.


Zela (Zilleh), one of the chief seats of the cultus of the goddess Anaïtis, the high priest of whose temple was the ruler of Zela and its territory.

Imperial—A coin of Trajan with ‘Zeus Epikarpios’ is perhaps false or wrongly attributed (Rec. gén., p. 116). Sept. Severus and family. Views of temple (of Anaïtis) (B. M. C.; Z. f. N., xii. 308); Male figure seated holding ears of corn (N. C., v. 185); Ears of corn (Z. f. N., xx. 266); Two towers and an arcade (Rec. gén., No. 11). Inscr., ΖΗΛΙΤΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ (abbrev.). Era, 64 A.D.

Kings of Pontus, and of Pontus with Bosporus

[Th. Reinach, Trois Royaumes de l'Asie Mineure, and L'histoire parles Monnaies (p. 137 for genealogy and dates); Wroth, B. M. C., Pontus, &c.; Waddington, Babelon, and Reinach, Recueil général, p. 9 f.; Von Sallet, Zur Num. der Konige von Pontus u. Bosporus. Berlin, 1866.]

1. Mithradates I, B.C. 302-266, founder of the Kingdom of Pontus. [1] No coins.

1 The kings numbered 1-7 were rules of Pontus only, before its union with Bosporus.

2. Ariobarzanes I, son of Mithradates I, B.C. 266? - 255? No coins.

3. Mithradates II, son of Ariobarzanes I, B.C. 255 1-2201

Head of Athena helmeted.
[Reinach, L'hist. p. l. m., p. 131; Tr. Roy., p. 162; Rec. gén., p. 9, No. 1.]
ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Nike standing holding palm.
AV Stater.

4. Mithradates III, son of Mithradates II, B.C. 220? - 185?

coin image
FIG. 261.
Head of Mithradates III, wrinkled, with close beard. (Fig. 261.) [Rein., Tr. Roy., p. 166; cf. L'hist. p. l. m., pp. 131, 132.] ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ Zeus seated, holding eagle; in field, star within crescent (sun and moon), the symbol of the House of Mithradates, which claimed Persian descent [R. N., 1900, p. 229; L'hist. p. l. m., Pl. VI. 2]
AR Attic Tetradr.; also Drachm.


5. Pharnaces I, B.C. 185? - 169. Son of Mithradates III.

coin image
FIG. 262.

Head of Pharnaces I. (Fig. 262.)
[Rein., Tr. Roy., p. 168.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΝΑΚΟΥ Male figure (Pantheistic divinity ?), standing, facing, wearing spreading hat, chiton, chlamys and cothurni; holds cornu- copiae, caduceus, and vine-branch, at which a doe beside him nibbles; in field, star in crescent
AR Attic Tetradr.; Dr.


6. Mithradates IV, Philopator, Philadelphus, B.C. 169-150? Son of Mithradates III; married his sister, Laodice V. Philadelphus.

Heads of Mithradates IV and Laodice, r., jugate.
[Rein., L'hist. p. l. m., p. 127.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΙΘΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΗΙ. ΦΙΛΑ- ΔΕΛΩΝ Zeus and Hera standing facing, each holding sceptre [Paris].
AR Attic Tetradr.
Head of Mithradates IV, r.
[Rein., L'hist. p. l. m., p. 128.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΦΙΛΟ- ΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΟΥ Perseus (ancestor of the Persian kings) standing facing, holding harpa and Gorgon’s head; in field, star in crescent [Berlin. Paris]
AR Attic Tetradr.


7. Mithradates V, Euergetes, B.C.; 150? - 120. Son of Pharnaces I ? No coins known. (Cf. N. C., 1905, p. 117 f.; Bull. Corr. Hell., xxx. p. 47 f.)

Laodice. The following coin has been attributed to the mother of Mithradates VI, Eupator, who was regent of Pontus, B.C. 120-113. Her name, however, is not stated by the historians, and the coin may belong to some other Pontic queen named Laodice (cf. the rev. with the rev. of the tetradr. of Mithradates IV and Laodice, supra).

Head of Laodice.
[Rein., L'hist. p. l. m., p. 134; Pl. VI. 5.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ [Λ]ΑΟΔΙΚΗΣ Hera standing, holding sceptre [Paris]
AR Attic tetradr.

8. Mithradates VI, Eupator (the ‘Great’), B.C. 120-63. King of Pontus and Bosporus. Son of Mithradates V.


coin image
FIG. 263.

Head of Mithradates VI. [Rec. gén., p. 13, where varieties without the mon. of Pergamum, &c., are given.] ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΕΥΠΑ- ΤΟΡΟΣ Stag feeding; in field, cres- cent and star, and Monogram of Per- gamum, where the coin was struck when Mithradates was resident there; whole in ivy-wreath
AV Stater 131 grs.
Head of Mithradates VI.
[Rec. gén., p. 14 f.]
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΕΥΠΑ. ΤΟΡΟΣ Pegasos drinking; in field, crescent and star, and usually a date (Era beginning Oct., B.C. 297) and numeral representing the month of issue; whole generally in ivy-wreath, ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ sometimes omitted.
AR Attic Tetradr.

Similar; hair more flowing. Similar, but type, stag feeding instead of Pegasos
AR Attic tetradr. (Fig. 263) (Rec. gén., p. 16 f.). AR Drachm (Rein., Tr. Roy., Pl. XI. 3).

Holm (Gr. Gesch., iv. p. 724) would connect the introduction of the stag (of Artemis) with the conquest of Western Asia Minor (B.C. 88). During the reign of Mithradates a more or less uniform coinage of bronze was issued in the various cities of Pontus and Paphlagonia, bearing, however, the name of the city, not that of the king (B. M. C., p. xv; Imh., Griech. M., p. 561 f.):—

2. Head of young Ares. Rev. Sword in sheath. (AMASIA, Amisus, CABEIRA, CHABACTA, Gaziura, LAODICEIA, PIMOLISA, TAULARA, AMASTRIS, SINOPE.)
3. Head of Athena (as on Athenian tetradrachms). Rev. Perseus standing; at his feet, body of Medusa. (AMISUS, CABEIRA, COMANA, AMASTRIS, SINOPE.)
4. Bust of young Perseus. Rev. Cornucopiae between caps of Dioskuri, above which, stars. (AMASIA, AMISUS, SINOPE.)
5. Head of Mithradates VI as Perseus (Imh., Gr. M., p. 564). Rev. Pegasos drinking. (Amisus, CHABACTA.)
6. Head of Perseus helmeted. Rev. Harpa winged. (AMISUS.)
8. Female bust in wolf’s skin. Rev. Nike. (AMISUS, SINOPE: see Imh., Gr. M., p. 570; Z. f. N., xxi. 218.)
9. Head of Artemis. Rev. Tripod with lebes. (AMISUS, SINOPE.)
10. Various Dionysiac types. (AMISUS, CABEIRA (Imh., Gr. M., p. 575), LAO- DICEIA (Z. f. N., xx. p. 263).)
11. Youthful bust (of Mithradates VI) in helmet. Rev. Quiver. (AMISUS Imh., Gr. M., p. 560; Z. f. N., xx. p. 256.)

On these coins the supposed Persian descent of Mithradates is empha- sized by the types relating to Perseus. Dionysiac types are frequent at Amisus, and the head of the god is often assimilated to that of Mithra- dates himself (B. M. C., p. xvi); compare the surname of Dionysos adopted by Mithradates, and the wreath of ivy (cf. Cistophori) on his tetradrachms.

For his dominions in Bosporus, Mithradates seems to have issued bronze money only (B. M. C., p. xxx, p. 44 f.; R. N., 1900, p. 128), marked by his name ΒΑ(σιλεος) Ε(υπτορος) in monogram. Also, probably, thick bronze pieces, obv. Young head in leather helmet, rev. Star (generally countermarked: Imh., Gr. M., p. 567). On the connexion of Mithradates with the coins of Smyrna, Odessus, and Athens, see B. M. C., Pontus, p. xxvii, and supra, p. 385.

Polemo I. King of Pontus from circ. B.C. 36; king of Bosporus from B.C. 17, ob. B.C. 9-8. AR Drachm. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟΣ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ. Rev. Pegasos; Star, &c. (von Sallet, Beiträge ... Cimm.

Bosporus; Podschivalov, Besehreibung, p. 11; R. N., 1866, pp. 420 ff.; Rec. gén., p. 19.)


Pythodoris, B.C. 8 - A.D. 22-231, widow of Polemo I; queen of Pontus. AR Drachms. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΑ ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΙΣ. With heads of Augustus and of Tiberius. Also with obv. head of Pythodoris (Rec. gén., p. 20, No. 21). Types: Cornucopiae; Capricorn; Scales; Star. (von Sallet, Beiträge, p. 69; Giel, Kleine Beiträge, p. 12; Reinach, L'hist. par les monn., p. 143.)

Antonia Tryphaena, B.C. 22-23 ?-A.D. 49?, daughter of Polemo I and Pythodoris, and mother of Polemo H. AR Drachms, with her son Polemo, and with portrait of each. ΒΑCΙΛΙCCΗC ΤΡΥΦΑΙΝΗC, ΒΑΣΙ- ΛΙΣΣΑ ΤΡΥΑΙΝΑ. (Z. f. N., xx. p. 267; R. N., 1900, p. 131; Reinach, L'hist., &c., p. 145; Rec. gén., p. 21 f.)

Polemo II, son of Antonia Tryphaena, king of Pontus, A.D. 38-64/5, and king of Bosporus till A.D. 41. JR Drachms, with head of Polemo H and heads of Claudius, Agrippina 0), Nero, Britannicus; also with Tryphaena (q. v.). Inscr., ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC. Dates from Era beginning Oct. A.D. 38. (Reinach, L'hist., &c., p. 145 f.; B. M. C., Pontus, p. xxviii, p. 46; Rec. gén., p. 22 f.)


Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosphorus

[Wroth, B. M. C., Pontus, &c., and the works of the Russian numismatists Burachkov, Giel, Oreschnikov, and Podschivalov: cf. Koehne, Mus. Kotschoubey; Latyschev, Inscr. ant. Orae Septent. Pont., Vol. II; Brandis, s. v. ‘Bosporos’ in Pauly-Wissowa.]

The ‘archons’ and ‘kings’ of the Cimmerian Bosporus of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., did not issue regal coinages, but the money of their time must be looked for in the rich civic currency of Panticapaeum (q. v.). The following regal issues are subsequent to the fourth cen- tury B.C.

Paerisades. Head of king, diademed, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΠΑΙΡΙΣΑΔΟΥ Athena seated holding Nike. AV stater imitated from the staters of Lysimachus. Podschivalov assigns the varieties of this coin to Paeri- sades III, IV, V, VI, who ruled circ. B.C. 280 to B.C. 100 (see B. M. C., p. xxix).


Spartocus. Head of king, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ [Σ]ΠΑΡΤΟΚΟΥ Bow in case. AR Attic didrachm. Second century B.C. (= Spartocus IV?, son of Paerisades) (B. M. C., p. xxix).


Leucon II or III. Æ, inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΕΥΚΩΝΟΣ. Types: Head of Herakles, rev. Bow and club; Head of Athena, rev. Fulmen; Shield and spear, rev. Bow in case. Second century B.C. ? (B. M. C., p. xxx).


The Bosporan coinage of Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, is described under his name, supra, p. 502.

Pharnaces II, B.C. 63-47, son of Mithradates VI Eupator, struck AV staters for his kingdom of Bosporus; obv. Head of king, diademed, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΝΑΚΟΥ, Apollo with branch and lyre, seated before tripod (B. M. C., p. xxxi).


Asander, B.C. 47 (or 44-431) to 16, issued AV and Æ with inscr., ΑΡΧΟΝΤΟΣ ΑΣΑΝ ΔΡΟΥ; also AV with inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΣΑΝ- ΔΡΟΥ; obv. Head of Asander, rev. Nike on prow (B. M. C., p. xxxi). Also AV of his widow Dynamis, ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΩΣ (Annali di Corr., 1841, p. 320; von Sallet, Beiträge ... Cimm. Bosp., p. 15).


Hygiaenon. First century B.C. Known only from a silver coin reading ΑΡΧΟΝΤΟΣ ΥΓΙΑΙΝΟΝΤΟΣ (Imhoof, Porträtköpfe, p. 34).

Akas. AV stater, like that of Paerisades, inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΚΟΥ.

Second century B.C. (Imhoof, Porträtköpfe, p. 35).

The later kings of Bosporus who issued coins are as follows :—

Aspurgus. B.C. 81-A.D. 38 ?


Rhescuporis I. A.D. 14-42.
Mithradates. A.D. 42-46.


Gepaepyris, wife of Mithradates ?


Cotys I. A.D. 46-78.


Rhescuporis II. A.D. 78-93.


Sauromates I. A.D. 93/4-123/4.


Cotys II. A.D. 123/4-131/2.


Rhoemetalces. A.D. 131/2-153/4.


Eupator. A.D. 154/5-170/11


Sauromates II. A.D. 172 (or 174/5)-210/11.


Rhescuporis III. A.D. 211/12-228/9.


Cotys III. A.D. 227/8-234/5 ?


Sauromates III. A.D. 229/30-232/3.


Rhescuporis IV. A.D. 233/4-234/5.
Ininthimeus. A.D. 234/5-239/40.


Rhescuporis V. A.D. 239/40-276.


Sauromates IV. A.D. 275/6.


Pharsanzes. A.D. 253/4-254/5.
Synges. A.D. 258-276.
Teiranes. A.D. 275/6-278/9.


Thothorses. A.D. 278/9-308/9.


Rhadamsades. A.D. 308/9-322/3.


Rhescuporis VI (VII?). A.D. 303/4-341/2.


The money issued by the above mentioned kings consisted of (i) A stater coinage. Until circ. A.D. 124, this coinage (by the exceptional privilege of the Roman Emperors) was of gold (123-120 grains). The metal, however, deteriorated into electrum, and, finally, through the stages of billon or potin, passed into bronze. These staters bear on one side the reigning Emperor’s head (without inscription); on the other, the king’s head with inscription, e. g. ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC CΑΥΡΟΜΑΤΟΥ. The staters bear dates of the Pontic Era, Oct. B.C. 297. (ii) Bronze coinage. The coins bear marks of value Η, ΙΒ, ΚΔ, and ΜΗ = 8, 12, 24,

and 48 noummiaνουμμια; but there is much variation in size and weight, even in the case of pieces bearing the same mark of value (B. M. C., p. xxxiv). The king’s head generally appears on the obverse. Reverse types—Labours of Herakles (Sauromates II); Aphrodite (?) seated; Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; City-gate; Nike with wreath and palm; Ivory chair, crown, shield, &c., the ΤΕΙΜΑΙ (timaiτιμαι) or marks of honour sent to the king by the Roman Emperor and Senate; King trampling on cap- tive; &c.