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[Head, B. V., Brit. Mus. Cat., Lydia, 1901.
Radet, G., La Lydie et le Monde grec, 1893.
Buresch, K., Aus Lydien, 1898.
Imhoof-Blumer, Lydische StadtMünzen, 1897; Kleinasiatische Münzen, 1901; and Zur griechischen
und römischen Münzkunde
, 1908.]

‘The Lydians,’ says Herodotus (i. 94), ‘were the first people we know of to strike coins of gold and of silver’; πρωτοι δε ανθρωπων των ημεις ιδμεν νομισμα χρυσου και αργυρου κοψαμενοι εχρησαντο, and Xenophanes of Colophon (ap. Jul. Pol., ix. 83) bears witness to the same tradition. Passing from these statements of ancient writers to an examination of the earliest Asiatic essays in the craft of coining, we are led to ascribe to the seventh century B.C., and probably to the reign of Gyges (B.C. 687- 652), the founder of the dynasty of the Mermnadae and of the new Lydian empire, as distinguished from the Lydia of more remote antiquity, the first issues of the Lydian mint. These are bean-shaped ingots of the metal called by the Greeks ‘electrum’ or ‘white gold’, a natural com- pound of gold and silver, collected at Sardes from the washings of the little mountain torrent Pactolus, and perhaps from diggings on the slopes of Tmolus and Sipylus. Ingots and rings, &c., of the precious metals adjusted to fixed weights had been used for purposes of exchange for ages before the Lydians first invented the convenient process of stamping them with marks as guarantees of value. Ingots thus stamped henceforth passed freely as current coin, and, so long as they were correct in weight, the exact amount of pure gold in each lump of metal does not appear to have been taken into consideration. The generally accepted rate of exchange between pure gold and silver stood in these times as 13.3 to 1, and the mixed metal, ‘electrum,’ of very variable quality, was roughly estimated at the rate of about 10 to 1, a convenient proportion which enabled bankers and money-changers to make use of a single set of weights for electrum and silver, and which accounts for the fact that the weights of the electrum staters correspond with those of the later silver staters, and depend upon the standard which happened to be in use for weighing silver in bullion and afterwards in coin in various districts (see supra, Ionia, p. 564). These standards were, in Lydia, the so-called Babylonic (stater 168 grs.) and the so-called Phoenician (stater 220 grs.).

It is probable that the Babylonic standard was prevalent in the in- terior of Asia Minor, and that the Phoenician standard was the one in use in the cities of the western sea-board, and that some coins of both standards were struck at Sardes. Among the numerous types of the early electrum coins it is impossible to distinguish those which belong to Sardes from those which were issued by the Greek cities on the coast. Granting, however, that ingots were first stamped at Sardes, the fol- lowing primitive specimens may be preferably assigned to the Lydian capital.

Time of Gyges, B.C. 687-652.
coin image
FIG. 310.

Plain striated surface. (Fig. 310.)
[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. III. 3.]
Three incuse sinkings, that in the centre oblong, the others square.
EL. Babylonic stater 166.8 grs.
Id. [Lenormant, Mon. roy. de la Lydie, p. 1.] Id., but in central incuse a running fox, in the upper square a stag’s bead, and in the lower punch.
EL. Phoenician stater 219 grs.
Id. [B. M. C., Ion., Pl. I. 3.] Three incuse sinkings, oblong between two squares.
EL. ½ stater 105.74 grs.
Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 9.] Incuse oblong or double square.
EL. Sixth 37 grs.
Id. [Head, Coinage of Lydia and Persia, Pl. I. 4.] Incuse square.
EL. Twelfth 18 grs.
Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 5.] Incuse square.
EL. Twenty-fourth 9 grs.

In the Fox on the reverse of the stater of 219 grs. Lenormant recog- nized the symbol of the Lydian god Bassareus, whose name he connected with the word βασσαρα, a fox. This hypothesis is not convincing.

For numerous other small electrum coins of this class, the minutest of which weighs no more than 2.2 grs., see B. V. Head, in Hogarth's Archaic Artemisia, B. M. Excavations at Ephesus, 1908, p. 79.

Time of Ardys, B.C. 652-615; Sadyattes, B.C. 615-610; and Alyattes, B.C. 610-561.

It seems improbable that the above-mentioned primitive electrum coinage without types can have been a royal monopoly. Such pieces may have been struck as occasion required, and independently of the reigning monarch. An examination of the interesting hoard unearthed by Hogarth on the site of the Artemision at Ephesus (op. cit.) reveals the fact that between the earliest issues and those with the Lion types (apparently the royal signet) there are at least two distinctly recognizable varieties : (i) those which bear on the obv. the Forepart or Head of a Goat (1/2, 1/3, 1/12, 1/24, 1/48 stater), and (ii) those with the type Two Cocks or Cocks’ heads (1/2, 1/3, 1/6, 1/12 stater). Whether these coins are Lydian or Ionian may be still an open question, but their primitive style and fabric renders it probable that they are antecedent to the Lion types, which seem to have superseded them about the time of Alyattes (B.C. 610-561). I infer therefore that, during the reigns of the predecessors of Alyattes, Gyges (B.C. 687-652), Ardys (B.C. 652-615), and Sadyattes (B.C. 615-610), the electrum coins struck in Lydia were issued by wealthy traders or bankers to meet the requirements of markets or fairs held in connexion

with religious festivals, such as those which were celebrated at Sardes in the reign of Gyges (op. cit., p. 89).

The subsequent predominance on early electrum and, later, gold coins, of the Lion type, suggests the idea that it may have been adopted as the royal signet (cf. Hdt. i. 50, 84, and 92), and probably by Alyattes (B.C. 610-561), who, like the Persian monarchs, may have asserted his claim to the sole right of coinage in the precious metals.

Among the electrum coins of the Lion type the following deserve special mention. Some of them may perhaps be earlier than the reign of Alyattes:—

coin image
FIG. 311.

Forepart of lion r., globule on forehead. (Fig. 311.) [B. M. C., Lyd., Pl. I. 1.] Three incuse sinkings, as on earlier specimens.
EL. Phoen. stater 217.84 grs.
Lion’s head r., with globule, radiate, on forehead. [Ib., Pl. I. 2.] Incuse oblong or double square.
EL. Third 72.7 grs.

To these may be added lesser divisions, the 1/6, 1/12, 1/24, 1/48, and 1/96, the larger with lion’s head and the smaller frequently with lion’s paw (B. V. Head in B. M. Excavations at Ephesus, p. 84). On some rare specimens of the 1/3 and of the 1/6 are traces of letters, apparently FΑΛFΕΙ (B. M. C., Lyd., xviii), which Six ingeniously explained as the Lydian form (with initial digamma) of the name of King Alyattes. The strongest evidence that the above-described Lion’s head Tritae were the coins most widely current in Lydia in the middle of the seventh century B.C. is the fact that barbarous copies of them are found, on which the lion’s head is rudely indicated in outline without any attempt at relief. The only barbarians who could have made such copies were the Cimmerian hordes who overran central Asia Minor and a great part of the Lydian Empire in the eighth and seventh centuries B.C., and who actually captured Sardes (Radet, La Lydie, p. 187 note).

In addition to the above-described coins there are contemporary specimens of which the type is a recumbent lion with reverted head (B. M. C., Ion., Pl. III. 4-7). These I prefer to assign conjecturally to Miletus, partly because the lion with reverted head is the recognized type of the coins of Miletus in later times, and partly because it is improbable that the coinage of a king of Lydia would exhibit a variety of types, one of the chief characteristics of the coinages of Oriental monarchies (e. g. the Persian) having been uniformity of type.

For other early electrum staters, &c., of various types see Clazomenae, Erythrae, Ephesus, Miletus, Phocaea, Teos, Chios, Samos, Mytilene, Cyzicus, Lampsacus, &c., &c., and Uncertain Mints.

Time of Croesus, B.C. 561-546.

When Croesus ascended the throne of Lydia, one of his first objects seems to have been to propitiate the Greeks, in both Europe and Asia, by magnificent offerings of equal value to the great sanctuaries of Apollo at Delphi and Branchidae (Herod. i. 46, 50, 92). Under his rule Lydia rose to be a great power, whose influence reached from the Halys on the east to the shores of the Aegean. To the early part of the reign of Croesus may probably be attributed the first introduction of a new type for the royal coins :—

Foreparts of lion and bull, in opposite directions and joined by their necks. [Head, Coinage of Lydia and Persia, Pl. I. 6.] Three incuse sinkings as on previous coinage.
EL. Phoen. stater 215.4 grs.

The combination of the Lion and the Bull is remarkable, and sug- gestive of a more widely extended empire. The electrum currency, owing perhaps to its uncertain intrinsic value, appears to have fallen somewhat into discredit, if we may judge from the multiplication of private merchants’ or bankers’ countermarks on many of the specimens here assigned to the successors of Gyges; and it would seem that Croesus soon found it necessary, not only to introduce a new and distinctive type. but to reorganize the coinage of his empire on an entirely new basis, substituting pure gold and pure silver denominations in place of the natural electrum. In this monetary reform regard seems to have been had to the weights of the two old electrum staters, each of which was now represented by an equal value, though not by an equal weight, of pure gold. Thus the old (so-called) Phoenician electrum stater of 220 grs. was replaced by a pure gold coin of 168 grs., equivalent, like its predecessor in electrum, to 10 silver staters of 220 grs. (one-fifth of the Phoenician silver mina), and the old Babylonian electrum stater of 168 grs., equal in value to one-fifth of the Babylonic silver mina, was replaced by an equivalent gold stater of 126 grs. exchangeable for 10 silver staters of 168 grs., as now for the first time coined. The denominations of these new Lydian coins seem to have been as follows :—

coin image
FIG. 312.

Foreparts of lion and bull, facing one another. Two incuse squares of different sizes, side by side. [B. M. C., Lyd., Pl. I. 14-19.]

(i) Babylonic silver standard { AV and AR Staters.
168 grs.
AR ½ Staters.
84 grs.
AV and AR 1/3 Staters.
56 grs.
AV Hecte (1/6 stater).
28 grs.
AV and AR Hemihecton.
(1/12 stater) 14 grs.

(ii) Babylonic gold standard { AV Stater (Fig. 312).
126 grs.
AV Trite (1/3 stater).
42 grs.
AV Hecte (1/6 stater).
21 grs.
AV Hemihecton (1/12 stater).
11 grs.

This reformed Lydian currency did not outlast the Persian conquest; hence the rarity of most of the existing specimens. In its essential principle, however, the Croesean coinage survived, and in purity of metal and standard of weight it became the prototype of the royal Persian pure gold darics and silver sigloi, a coinage which maintained its supremacy for two centuries until it was, in its turn, superseded by the gold Philippi and the coinage of Alexander the Great.

Under Persian rule it is highly probable that darics and sigloi were struck by the Satraps at Sardes, but there is, as yet, no evidence of the fact.

For the coins struck at Sardes after the Macedonian conquest see p. 656.

Coinage of Lydian Cities.

Second century B.C. down to Gallienus.

It was not, however, until after the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans at Magnesia, B.C. 190, that some of the more important Lydian towns began to issue bronze money, and it was only in Imperial times that a general revival of trade set in, and that every little community, of sufficient standing to rank as a πολις, availed itself of the privilege of coining bronze money in its own name. This local coinage was often issued only during Festivals. The following are the Lydian mints in alphabetical order :—

Acrasus, on the upper Caïcus (B. M. C., Lydia, p. xxx). Imperial, with or without heads of Emperors—Commodus to Gordian. Inscr. ΑΚΡΑCΙΩ- ΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with title Strategos (or First Archon on some coins of Sev. Alex. and Mamaea). Types—ΚΑΙΚΟC River-god Kaïkos recumbent; Amphion and Zethos binding Dirke to the bull (cf. Thyatira); Maenad (?) and Pan with column between them; Kybele enthroned on car drawn by lions; Artemis Ephesia with Tyche of Acrasus in chariot drawn by galloping stags; Dionysos in short chiton holding kantharos over panther; Asklepios, Hygieia, and Telesphoros; Herakles and Athena sacrificing; Apollo with cloak and laurel branch; Busts of Roma, ΔΗΜΟC, CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, &c.

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Aninetus, on the south slope of the Messogis between Mastaura and Briula (B. M. C., Lydia, p. xxxii). Bronze coin of early second century B.C., ΑΝΙΝΗCΙWΝ and monogram of Pergamum, proving Pergamene suzerainty (B. M.); obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on thunderbolt. Others with Head of Apollo, rev. Horse with palm. Some with magistrates’ names in nominative. Interval till Augustus. Imperial—Augustus to Etruscilla. In the reign of Ant. Pius there are coins dedicated, ΑΝΙΝΗCΙΟΙC or ΑΝΙΝΗCΙΩΝ ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ, by an Archiereus. Types— Horse and palm; Artemis Ephesia; Rape of Persephone; Helios in quadriga; Dionysos; &c. Heads of Emperors or of ΔΗΜΟC.

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Apollonis, called after Queen Apollonis, the mother of Eumenes II and Attalus II of Pergamum, was in northern Lydia, on the Cissus (?), a tributary of the Hyllus, near modern Palamut (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xxxiii). Cistophori with ΑΠΟΛ, and ΒΑ. ΕΥ. Δ, year 4 of Eumenes II (= B.C. 186), and bronze, ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΔΕΩΝ, Head of Kybele, rev. Zeus seated; Head of Herakles, rev. Fulmen. Interval till Imperial times, Julia, Titi filia (?), or Domitia to Sev. Alex. with or without heads of Emperors. Ordinary types—ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ. Rev. Eagle on bone; Amphora; Kybele seated; Dionysos in temple; Kalathos; and Artemis Persica as at the neighbouring Hierocaesareia. Names of Strategoi from Verus onwards.

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Apollonos-hieron or Apollonieron, on the east slopes of Messogis near the modern Bulladan, about six miles north of Tripolis and overlooking the Lycus valley towards the Salbacus range in the south (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xxxv). Imperial, with Emperors’ heads, Tiberius to Hostilian, with ΑΠΟΛΛWΝΙЄΡΙΤWΝ, ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙЄΡЄΙΤΩΝ, and, later, ΑΠΟΛΛΩ- ΝΟΙЄΡЄΙΤΩΝ. Quasi-autonomous, apparently from time of Severus, &c., with heads of Roma or ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC. Types—Zeus Lydios; Dionysos; Hades with Kerberos; Apollo standing, sometimes in temple; &c. Magistrates, Hiereus and First Archon in genitive case with επι.


Attaleia. Originally an Attalid outpost on the upper Gurduk-chai (Lycus ?), some eight miles north of Thyatira (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xxxvi). Coins only of Imperial times, Commodus to Sev. Alex. Inscr., ΑΤΤΑ- ΛЄΑΤΩΝ, occasionally with name of Strategos in genitive case with επι. Types—Bust of Artemis with surname ΒΟΡЄΙΤΗΝΗ or ΚΟΡΗ; also Artemis or Selene-Hekate running with torch in each hand; Herakles and lion; Dionysos and Pan; River-god (Lykos); Busts of Roma, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, &c. The coins of the other Attaleia, in Pamphylia, read ΑΤΤΑΛЄΩΝ.

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Aureliopolis. See Tmolus Aureliopolis.

Bageis. Probably opposite the modern Sirghe on the upper Hermus, some twenty miles north-east of the modern Kula (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xxxviii). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Nero to Salonina. ΒΑΓΗ- ΝΩΝ or ΚΑΙCΑΡЄΩΝ ΒΑΓΗΝΩΝ; also ΒΑΓЄΙC (Imh., Monn. gr., 384). Magistrate, Archon or First Archon, Trajan to Geta; also Hiereus (?) and Stephanephoros in time of Commodus. Principal types—ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; ΘЄΑΡΩΜΗ; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ; &c. Rev. Bull; City seated; Zeus Lydios; Demeter; River ЄΡΜΟC; Isis; Hermes; Asklepios; Dionysos; Emp. (Sept. Sev. and Valerian) on horseback riding over prostrate Parthians and sometimes assisted by Ares and Athena; Aphrodite standing naked to front with three Erotes at her feet.

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Alliance coins with Temenothyrae (Gallienus and Salonina). Types— Mên and Tyche; Herakles and Dionysos.

Blaundus. A Macedonian fortress on an acropolis and a lower city at foot of rock, modern Suleimanli, in a ravine of the Hippurius, a northern affluent of the Maeander on the frontiers of Phrygia (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xl). Autonomous coins of second century B.C., ΜΛΑΥΝΔΕΩΝ and Magis- trate’s name in nominative case, sometimes with patronymic or mono-

grams only. Types—Heads of Zeus; Dionysos; Herakles; Apollo; rev. Eagle; Thyrsos; Club; Bow and Quiver; Hermes; Homonoia (?) feeding serpent; &c. Interval till Imperial times — Claudius to Volusian. Inscr., ΒΛΑΥΝΔЄΩΝ (or for a short time ΒΛΑΟΥΝΔЄΩΝ), with occasional addition of ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝΩΝ. The Magistrates’ names down to the time of the Antonines are in the nominative case. In the case of the Proconsul C. Silius Italicus, circ. A. D. 77, the inscription is however ЄΠΙ ΙΤΑΛΙΚΟV. From the time of Ant. Pius onwards the name of the First Archon or Strategos is always in the genitive and usually preceded by επι. The Chief types in Imperial times are Apollo Kitharoedos; Dionysos standing; Demeter standing; Zeus naked letting fly an eagle over an altar; Herakles and Lion; Herakles and Geryon; Lydian axe-bearing god or hero on horseback, sometimes conducted by Hermes; River-god ΙΠΠΟΥΡΙΟC; ΡΩΜΗ standing; Flying eagle carry- ing crossed bones. Busts on quasi-autonomous coins of ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ, &c.

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Briula in the Maeander valley, about five miles above Antioch, but on the northern or Lydian side of the river (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xliii). Coinage confined to the century between Domitian and Aurelius. None with magistrates’ names. Inscr., ΒΡΙΟΥΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Types—ΜΗΤΗΡ ΘЄΩΝ Kybele; ΗΛΙΟC Bust; Apollo; Dionysos; ΖЄVC ΟΛVΜΠΙΟC seated, &c.

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Caÿstriani. The peoples of the plain of the lower Caïster (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xliii). Autonomous coins of second or first century B.C., struck per- haps at Hypaepa. Inscr., ΚΑΥΣΤΡΙΑΝΩΝ. Types—Heads of Apollo; Kybele; Dionysos; Herakles. Rev. Winged Caduceus; Lyre formed out of a bucranium. Also Head of Zeus, rev. Goddess of Hypaepa, Artemis Anaïtis (Rev. Num., 1885, Pl. I. 5).

Magistrates’ names rare; ΣΩΣΙΚΡΑΤΟΥ (B. M.), ΣΙΓΓΕΩΣ (Imh., Monn. gr., 385), ΣΩΣΘ ΔΗΜ (?) (Imh., Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 120).

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Cilbiani. These people were so called probably from the river Kilbos, an affluent of the upper Caïster. In Imperial times the Cilbiani of the upper and lower plains seem to have been divided into two separate communes. The coins of the Upper Cilbiani, reading ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΑΝΩ, range from Nero to Geta. Names of Roman magistrates under Nero and Trajan, including that of Celsus, Proconsul of Asia (?) under Trajan, reading επι Κελσου ανθυ. Names of civic archons (strategoi) under Caracalla, &c., with επι αρχ. Types—Artemis Ephesia; Dionysos; Tyche; and River ΚΙΛΒΟC.

The coins of the Lower Cilbiani were struck at the chief city in the valley, Nicaea, and read ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΙ ΝЄΙΚΑΙΑΝ, ΝЄΙΚЄΑΝ, or ΝЄΙΚΗΑΝ, ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩΝ ΝЄΙΚΑΙΑC, &c., down to the time of Sept. Sev., when Nicaea, the chief town, begins to assert her predominance by inverting the form of the superscription which is henceforth ΝЄΙΚΑЄΩΝ ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩΝ, ΝЄΙΚΑΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ЄΝ ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩΝ, or ЄΝ ΚΙΛΒΙΑΝΩ, &c. On the coins of the Lower Cilbiani, time of Augustus to Domitian, the Magistrate’s name is that of a Grammateus in nominative case. During the Antonine period the Magistrate is called Strategos or Archon, and his name is in the genitive case with επι. The honorary title Φιλοσε- βαστος is added to the Archon’s name on coins of Caracalla. The coin-

types of the Lower Cilbiani include a River-god (Kilbos ?); Eirene; Artemis Ephesia; Goddess seated before naked Apollo and crowned by Nike standing on eagle (Num. Zeit., xx, Pl. I. 17); and Turreted bust of City, inscr., ΝΕΙΚΑΗΝΗ (N. Z., l. c.); also ΝЄΙΚЄΑ and ΝЄΙΚΕΙΑ, and on other quasi-autonomous coins, ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ, &c.

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Clannudda. A Seleucid (?) stronghold about fifteen miles north of Blaundus (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xlviii). Autonomous of second century B.C. Inscr., ΚΛΑΝΝΟΥΔΔΕΩΝ. Types—Head of Hermes, rev. Bull; Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle; Head of Apollo, rev. Artemis Anaïtis. No magis- trates’ names.


Daldis. The site of this town has been fixed at Nardy Kalessi in the highlands south of the river Phrygius, some ten miles north-east of the Gygaean Lake (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xlix). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins from the time of one of the Flavian emperors to Gallienus. Inscr., ΔΑΛΔΙΑΝΩΝ, or very rarely ΦΛΑΒΙΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ ΔΑΛΔΙΑΝΩΝ or ΦΛΑΒ[ιων] ΚΑΙCΑΡ[εων] ΔΑΛΔΙ[ανων], titles which were abandoned before the time of Severus.

Magistrate—Strategos with επι. This title is replaced after the age of the Antonines by that of First Archon. On a coin of Otacilia the titles are ΑΡΧΙ ΠΡΩ ΠΟ Β = ‘Αρχι[ερεως] [και] πρω[του] πο[λεως] β. The title πρωτος της πολεως = πρωτος αρχων (?). Chief types—Artemis Ephesia; Zeus Lydios; Cultus-effigy of Kore; Apollo Mystes seated in temple; Artemis with hounds, hunting two stags; Perseus slaying three Gorgon sisters asleep under a tree with winged Hypnos hovering over them and attendant horse looking back, temple of Apollo in background (Z. f. N., v. 105); Asklepios and Hygieia; &c.

Busts on quasi-autonomous coins—ΘЄΟΝCVΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΙЄΡΑ CVΝ- ΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; Sarapis; Roma; City ΦΛΑΒΙΟΠΟΛΙC; &c.

Alliance coin with Philadelpheia—Caracalla (B. M. C., Lyd., p. 211).


Dioshieron. Site at Birghi, a few miles north-east of Odemish, in a gorge of Mount Tmolus opening upon the plain of the Caïster (B. M. C., Lyd., p. l). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins — Augustus (?) to Gordian. Magistrates—Grammateus (Nero and Ant. Pius) and Strategoi (from Commodus onwards). Inscr., ΔΙΟΣΙΕΡΙΤΩΝ and ΔΙΟCΙЄΡЄΙΤΩΝ. Chief types—River ΚΑΥCΤΡΟC; ΖΕΥΣ, Heads of Zeus and Nero; Hera standing; Zeus seated; Asklepios; Tyche; ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; &c.

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Germe, on the southern bank of the Caïcus some thirty miles east of Pergamum (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lii). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins-Titus to Philip. Magistrates—Strategos or First Archon from Trajan’s time onwards. Inscr., ΓЄΡΜΗΝΩΝ. Chief types—Apollo, sometimes with the python on a laurel behind him; Apollo and Marsyas; Apollo seated on rock before agonistic table (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 117); Seer (μαντις), with flying eagle pointing the way before seated Herakles; Herakles reclining on lion’s back, holding small Eros and club (Hirsch., Auct. Cat., xiii. 3307); Herakles and Kerberos; Dionysos in panther-car, accompanied by satyrs, &c.; Three

Danaïds (?); and other types of no great interest. Also ΙЄΡΑ CVΝ- ΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΓЄΡΜΗ, ΤVΧΗ ΠΟΛЄΩC, &c.

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Gordus-Julia or Julia-Gordus modern Giordiz, near the sources of the Kum-Chai, River Hyllus, or Phrygius, later called Glaucus, a northern tributary of the Hermus.

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Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Trajan to Gallienus. Inscr., ΙΟVΛΙЄΩΝ ΓΟΡΔΗΝΩΝ or ΓΟΡΔΗΝΩΝ only. Magistrate—Strategos, or without title, Trajan to Commodus. From this time onwards the magistrate is no longer styled Strategos, but Archon or First Archon, with supplementary honorific titles Ιππικος and Συνγενης συνκλη[τικων] under Valerian and Gallienus. Chief types—River-god Phrygios; Asklepios; Dionysos; Zeus seated; Artemis Ephesia; Rape of Perse- phone; Cultus-statue of Kore; Mên; Athena; Demeter; Herakles; Lion; Telesphoros; Tyche; Hades-Sarapis and Isis, &c. Busts of ΙΟVΛΙΑ ΓΟΡΔΟC, ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, &c. Games— ΑΓΩΝΟΘЄCCΙΑ, Valerian.

Hermocapelia. This town is identified with the modern Geukche-keui on the north side of the Hyrcanian plain, a few miles south-west of Apollonis (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lvi). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins-Hadrian to Treb. Gallus. Inscr., ЄΡΜΟΚΑΠΗΛΙΤΩΝ or ЄΡΜΟ- ΚΑΠΗΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrate—Strategos, Sept. Sev. to Treb. Gallus. Chief types—Zeus Sarapis; Grapes; Hermes; Demeter; Asklepios; Rape of Persephone. Busts of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΘЄΑ ΡΩ[ΜΗ]; ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩ[ΜΗΝ]; &c.


Hierocaesareia. The site has been fixed on the south bank of the Kum-Chai (Hyllus, later Phrygius, and still later Glaucus) about fifteen miles south of Thyatira (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lvii). The town was originally called Hieracome from an ancient sanctuary of Artemis Περσικη, and coins are attributed to it of the second or first century B.C. with ΠΕΡΣΙΚΗ beneath the bust of Artemis on the obverse (Imh., Lyd. Stadtm., Pl. I. 1-3). The name Hierocaesareia was conferred upon it by Tiberius. Its coinage (Quasi-autonomous and Imperial) ranges from the time of Nero to that of Sev. Alex. Inscr., ΙЄΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡЄΩΝ. Magistrates—Archiereus, title of Nero., and Strategos or First Archon under the Antonines.

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A coin of Trajan’s time reads ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΩ ΦЄΡΟΚΙ (Ti. Julius Ferox, Procos. A.D. 116-117). The types refer to the cultus of the Persic Artemis and of Perseus. Busts of ΠЄΡCΙΚΗ, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡЄΙΑ; also recumbent River-god ΓΛΑVΚΟC, who is not to be confused with the other ΓΛΑVΚΟC on coins of Eumeneia in Phrygia.

Hypaepa. Site fixed at Tapaï, north-west of Odemish on the south slope of Mount Tmolus (B. M. C., Lydia, p. lisex). For coins of second or first century B.C. see Caÿstriani. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial— Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., VΠΑΙΠΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates—Down to Nero the names are in the nominative case, rarely in genitive case, and only in one instance with επι, while the titles are Strategos and Gram- mateus. From Trajan to Ant. Pius the name is preceded by επι, but no

title appears. From M. Aur. onwards επι is almost always expressed, and the title is Strategos or First Archon. Occasionally under Commodus and Caracalla the coins are struck in the joint names of two Strategi. Under S. Severus the Strategoi were also Asiarchs, and under Geta and Gordian sometimes Stephanephoroi. Chief types—Cultus-idol of Artemis Anaïtis; The temple of the same goddess; Two boys casting lots with astragali before the effigy of the goddess; The Lydian axe- bearing god; Asklepios, sometimes accompanying Anaïtis; Zeus; Herakles and Dionysos (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 174 ); City-goddess and Apollo (Hunter Cat., Pl. LV. 19); Dionysos and Pan (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 119); Nike; Tyche; Kybele; Artemis huntress; River ΚΑΥCΤΡΟC; &c. Also Busts of ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; City goddess ΥΠΑΙΠΑ; Herakles; &c.

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Alliance coins with Sardes, struck at Sardes.

Hyrcanis. Originally a settlement of Hyrcanians from the neighbour- hood of the Caspian sea, transported to Lydia in Persian times. Under Seleucid (?) rule it received a Macedonian garrison (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxiv). Site on the north slope of the Chal Dagh, above a stream anciently called the Pidasus, which flows into the Hyllus about fifteen miles above its junction with the Hermus.

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Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Trajan to Philip. Inscr., ΥΡΚΑΝΩΝ or ΥΡΚΑΝΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ. Magistrates—Strategos with, under Philip, additional title Stephanephoros. Coins of Trajan and Hadrian also bear the names ΑΝΘ. ΒΙΤ. ΠΡΟΚ[ΛΩ] (Q. Bittius Proculus, Procos. circ. A.D. 112), and ΑΝΘΥ. ΚΥΙΗΤΩ (Avidius Quietus, Procos. under Hadrian). The types point chiefly to the cults of Dionysos, Demeter and Kore, and Asklepios. The River-god ΠΙΔΑCΟC lies beneath a tree and leans upon a Macedonian (?) shield, implying, perhaps, that the old Macedonian fort still guarded the approach by the river. Busts also occur of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC and of the City ΥΡΚΑΝΙC, &c.

Maeonia. The modern Menne in the volcanic region called Κατακεκαυ- μενη, midway between the rivers Cogamis and Hermus (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxvi). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Nero to Trajan Decius. Inscr., ΜΑΙΟΝΩΝ. Magistrate—usually Archon or First Archon, exceptionally Strategos. The title Stephanephoros is added occasionally under Caracalla and Traj. Decius.

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The chief types refer to the worship of Zeus Olympios, Demeter and Kore (sometimes as cultus-effigy flanked by ears of corn and poppy, Rev. Num., 1893, p. 456), Zeus Lydios, Rape of Persephone, Herakles and Omphale, Dionysos, Athena, Artemis, Hekate, Mên, Hestia, &c.


Magnesia ad Sipylum. The modern Manisa on the north slope of Mount Sipylus, overlooking the plain of the lower Hermus (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxix). Magnesia belonged to the Seleucidae down to the defeat of Antiochus under its walls in B.C. 190. It then passed under Attalid rule, and its earliest coins, characterized by various monograms, seem to belong to this period. Inscr., ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ ΣΙΠΥΛΟΥ, Heads of Zeus, Apollo, Kybele, Artemis, Herakles, &c. Rev. Serpent twined round omphalos; Grapes; Zeus Lydios; Zeus and Hermes (?) joining hands; Athena Nike-

phoros; Horse; Tripod; Demeter standing; &c. Interval, till about B.C. 30, when coins were struck with the portrait of the Proconsul M. Tullius Cicero Junior. Inscr., ΜΑΡΚΟΣ ΤΥΛΛΙΟΣ ΚΙΚΕΡΩΝ. Rev. ΜΑΓ- ΝΗΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΑΠΟ ΣΙΠΥΛΟΥ, Hand holding wreath, corn, and vine. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Salonina. Under Tiberius with inscr. CЄΒΑCΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΗΝ, in recognition of his restoration of the city after the great earthquake in A. D. 17 (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 122). Magistrates’ names frequent down to the age of the Antonines (apparently) in the nominative case, and afterwards in the genitive, with επι, title Strategos. There occurs also a ΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΣΕ- ΒΑΣΤΟΥ on coins of Augustus and Livia, and one of the Strategoi under Philip has the additional title ΙΠΠΙΚΟC. Inscriptions on Imperial coins— ΜΑΓΝΗΤΕΣ ΑΠΟ ΣΙΠΥΛΟΥ, ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ ΑΠΟ CΙΠΥΛΟΥ, or ΜΑΓ- ΝΗΤΩΝ CΙΠΥΛΟΥ, &c. Chief types—obv. Busts of Zeus or Mount Sipylus; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Herakles; CΙΠΥΛΟC bearded; Kybele; City-goddess ΜΑΓΝΗCΙΑ; ΘΕΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, ΘЄΑΝ CΥΝΚΛΗ- ΤΟΝ, &c.; rev. ЄΡΜΟC recumbent; Demeter standing; Temple of Tyche; Asklepios; Homonoia (?); Hero Magnes (?) holding his horse; Child (Ploutos ?); Temple of Kybele; Kybele seated or in lion chariot; Apollo seated; Zeus standing; with many others of less interest. Games—ΑΔΡΙΑΝΑ ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΑ ЄΝΜΟΝΙΔЄΙΑ (Sev. Alex.); ΑΔΡΙ- ΑΝΑ ΑΝΤΩΝΗΑ ЄΝΜΟΝΙΔЄΙΑ (Philip), and ЄΝΜΟΝΙΔЄΙΑ alone on various other coins. On a coin of Crispina (Imh., Lyd. Stadtm., 90) the form ЄΜΜΟΝΙΑCΙΑ occurs. This word has not been quite satisfactorily explained (see B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxxiii note).

Alliance coins with Smyrna, under Valerian. Type—The Kybele of Magnesia and the two Nemeses of Smyrna.

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Mastaura. Site on the south slope of Mount Messogis on the river Chrysorhoas, a small affluent of the Maeander (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxxii).

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Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Tiberius to Valerian. Magis- strates—Ο ΕΠΙΜΕΛΗΤΗΣ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ(?). Obv. ΜΑΣΤΑΥΡΙΤΑΙ ΣΕ- ΒΑΣΤΟΥΣ, Tiberius and Livia. From Commodus onwards the title is Grammateus in the genitive with επι. Inscr., ΜΑCΤΑΥΡЄΙΤΩΝ. Chief types—Lydian hero standing or on horseback with the Double- axe; Altar before Cypress tree; Hekate (?) standing, with crescent over her head; Demeter standing, with inscr. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΑ; Apollo CΩΖΩΝ standing; Dionysos; Leto; Selene in biga of bulls; Youth slaying humped bull; &c.

Mostene. Site uncertain, but probably in the Hermus plain (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxxiv).

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Autonomous of second century B.C. Inscr., ΛΥΔΩΝ ΜΟΣΤΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in monogram form. The Mosteni claimed a pure Lydian origin, in contrast with the Hyrcani and other neighbouring communities of Persian descent.

Interval of more than a century when the quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage begins. Claudius to Gallienus. Inscr., ΜΟCΤΗΝΩΝ, ΜΟCΤΗΝΩΝ ΚΑΙCΑΡЄΩΝ, till Vespasian; afterwards ΜΟCΤΗΝΩΝ ΛΥΔΩΝ again. Magistrate—Archon till time of Severus, subsequently Strategos.


Chief types—The Lydo-Phrygian axe-bearing divinity often radiate, on horseback, with altar and cypress tree in front; sometimes Hermes leads the horse. Busts of Roma, ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. It is noteworthy that Mostene and Magnesia in the time of Gallienus make use of the same obverse dies; for similar cases in Lydia see Imhoof- Blumer, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 115, with references there.

Nacrasa. Site at or near the modern Bakir in North Lydia, between Thyatira and Pergamum (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxxvi). Originally a Seleucid stronghold, but no coins are known before Imperial times. Quasi-auto- nomous and Imperial coins—Domitian to M. Aurelius. Inscr., ΝΑΚΡΑ- CΙΤΩΝ or ΝΑΚΡΑCЄΙΤΩΝ, down to the time of the Antonines, later ΝΑΚΡΑCЄΩΝ. Magistrate—Strategos. Chief types—Artemis Ephesia; Serpent coiled round omphalos; Stag; Apollo standing; Kybele; Temple of Artemis; Asklepios; Herakles; Zeus seated; Rape of Per- sephone; &c. Busts of Senate, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC and ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, Herakles, &c.

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Nicaea. See Cilbiani.

Nysa. Site near modern Eski-Hissar, on the south slope of Mount Messogis, in the Maeander valley (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxxviii). Founded by a Spartan named Athymbros. Name changed to Nysa by Antiochus I after one of his wives. Although Nysa was a Seleucid city, its earliest coins are Cistophori, adjunct symbol Kore veiled, and Quarter Cistophori, with ΝΥ or ΝΥCΑ in field. Magistrates’ names abbreviated in nomina- tive case, and dates 12, 15, and 23 of the Asian era (B.C. 134-133); also contemporary (?) bronze, some dated ΕΤΟΥΣ Ε, ΕΤΟΥΣ Θ, ΕΤΟΥΣ ΕΚ, &c. (as to these dates see Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 194). Magistrates’ names in nominative case at full length or abbreviated. Inscr., ΝΥΣΑΕΩΝ. Types—Heads of Zeus, Hades, Kore, Dionysos, &c. Rev. Kore standing; Rape of Kore; Slinger; Horned panther; Bunch of grapes; &c.

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Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Gallienus. Magistrates— Grammateus and Hiereus in nominative case down to Nero. From Domitian onwards Grammateus in genitive, usually with επι, and with additional title Hiereus on coins of Gordian. Inscr., ΝΥCΑЄΩΝ. Chief types—These,—in addition to the ordinary conventional types, e. g. ΔΗΜΟC, CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, &c.,—are mostly connected with the festivals. Many bear explanatory legends such as ЄΙΡΗΝΗ; ΚΟΡΟC (Plenty); ЄΥΠΟCΙΑ; ΠΑΤΡΩΟΣ ΣΩΖΩΝ (epithet of Apollo); ΠΛΟΥΤΟΔΟΤΗΣ (epithet of Zeus); ΚΑΜΑΡЄΙΤΗC (epithet of Mên); ΚΟΡΗ; ΔΙΟΝΥCΟC; ΑΘΥΜΒΡΟC; &c. A type of special interest shows a bull borne to the sacrifice on the shoulders of six naked ephebi; this illustrates a passage in Strabo (xiv. 1. 44), in which he describes the annual Panegyris near Nysa. Games—ΘЄΟΓΑΜΙΑ ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΑ, in honour of the marriage of Hades and Persephone.

Alliance coin with Ephesus—Elagabalus. Type—Mên and Artemis Ephesia.

Pactolus. For coins said to read ΠΑΚΤΩΛΕΩΝ (probably tooled) see Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii, No. 4058, and Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 125.


Philadelpheia. The city of Philadelpheia, modern Ala Shehr, was founded by Attalus Philadelphus (B.C. 159-138) on the lower slope of the Tmolus range commanding the valley of the Cogamis and the route connecting the Hermus and Maeander valleys (B. M. C., Lyd., p. lxxxiv). Autonomous, second century B.C. (?). Inscr., ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΩΝ. Magis- trates’ names in monogram. Types—Macedonian shield, rev. Thunder- bolt; Head of Zeus, rev. Lyre; Head of Artemis, rev. Apollo; Head of Dionysos, rev. Pantheress; Head of Dionysos, rev. Thyrsos; Heads of Dioskuri, rev. Pilei. On latest autonomous issues magistrate (with personal (?) title, ‘Αρχερευς) in nominative case.

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Interval till commencement of Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage. Caius Caesar or Caligula to Valerian. Inscr., ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΩΝ with or without ΝΕΟΚΑΙ CΑΡΕΩΝ, from Nero to Vespasian ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΕΩΝ only, but, in honour of the latter, the title ΦΛΑΒΙΩΝ was added, which occurs intermittently as long as the city continued to coin money. From the time of Caracalla ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ is added. Magistrates. The full official title (not always expressed) appears to have been First Archon. The names are in the nominative case down to Nero. Under Vespasian there are coins reading επιμεληθ[εντων] with two magistrates’ names in genitive case, and from Vespasian onwards the archon’s name is always in the genitive case, usually with επι. The personal titles of distinction which some archons were careful to record on their coins are the following :— ‘Αρχιερευς, second or first century B.C. (see above); Ιερευς Γερμανικου, Priest of a temple erected by Caligula in memory of Germanicus; Φιλο- πατρις and Φιλοκαισαρ, on coins of Caligula; ‘Ολυμπιονικης on a coin of Caligula. In some instances, under Caracalla, επι στρατηγου α πολ. (πρωτου της πολεως) instead of επι αρχ. α.

Chief types in Imperial times—Zeus Lydios; Aphrodite in shrine; Kybele enthroned; Serpent of Asklepios coiled on back of horse, in reference to horse race in Asklepian Games; Helios in shrine, probably issued during the celebration of the Δεια Αλια. Also ΖЄΥC ΚΟΡΥΦΑΙΟC; ΠΗΓΗ (Fountain nymph); ΚΟΓΑΜΙC, River-god; and numerous other types of apparently less local importance, together with the conventional representations of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦΙΑ; &c. Games—ΔЄΙΑ ΑΛΙΑ and Α[CΚΛΗΠ]ЄΙΑ (?).

Alliance coins with Daldis, Smyrna, and Ephesus.

Saïtta. The territory of this town, the modern Sidas Kale, on the river Ilgi-Chai, seems to have been bounded on the east by that river, on the west by the Demirji-Chai, one or other of which bore the name of Hyllus, and on the south by the Hermus (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xci). The coins are as yet the only published records of the existence of this city. They are Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, extending from M. Aurelius to Gallienus. Inscr., CΑΙΤΤΗΝΩΝ. The title of the chief magistrate was First Archon. Under Elagabalus, one of the First Archons was also ‘Αρχιερευς, and another, under Gordian, adds to his name υου ιπ. ‘Ασι. (= son of an Asiarch of equestrian rank). Chief types—ΖΕVC ΠΑΤ- ΡΙΟC; Mên ΑΖΙΟΤΤΗΝΟC; ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; &c. Also ЄΡΜΟC and VΛΛΟC, River-gods; and representations of Aphrodite, Kybele, Herakles, Herakles and Geryon (Hirsch, Auct. Cat., xiii. 4063), Apollo, Athena, Dionysos, Sarapis and Isis, &c.

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Sala. This city was in eastern Lydia, and occupied the territory between Blaundus and Tripolis north of the River Sindrus (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xciv). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Domitian to Sev. Alex. Inscr., CΑΛΗΝΩΝ, and in Domitian’s time ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟ- ΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ CΑΛΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ titles, Archon or First Archon. Also Hiereus in Trajan’s time. Chief types—Busts, ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟC ΗΡΩC; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΔΗΜΟC; Roma or Athena; Herakles; &c. Rev. types—Zeus Lydios; Dionysos; Kybele; Hermes; Asklepios with Hygieia and Telesphoros; Tyche holding plough as well as rudder; &c.

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Alliance coin with another city whose name is effaced (Wadd., As. Min., p. 33).

Sardes, the ancient capital of the Lydian kingdom, was situated on and around a projecting rocky spur of Mount Tmolus overlooking the plain of the Hermus and its little tributary the Pactolus, a mountain stream which, in ancient times, was famous for the gold-dust which it rolled down from the mountain, the source of the immense wealth of Croesus and his ancestors. The early electrum, gold, and silver coinage of the Lydian kings (see p. 644 ff.) may have been issued from the Sardian mint, and it is more than probable that gold darics and silver sigloi were struck there under Persian rule.

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In Seleucid times regal money must have sometimes been struck at Sardes, e.g. the coins of Achaeus q. v., who proclaimed himself king at Sardes in B.C. 214.

In B.C. 189 Lydia was annexed to the kingdom of the Attalids, and, between this date and B.C. 133, when it was included in the Roman Province of Asia, and even after that date, Sardes was one of the mints from which cistophori were issued. Contemporary with the cistophori are a few Alexandrine tetradrachms and drachms and some gold Philippi of late style, which were probably struck at Sardes (B. M. C., Lyd., p. xcvii). To this age (probably after B.C. 133) may be also assigned the rare tetradrachm described by Imhoof (Monn. gr., Pl. G. 23). Head of young Herakles. Rev. ΣΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ Zeus Lydios standing, wt. 236 grs.

The autonomous bronze coinage of Sardes is contemporary with the cistophori, and may extend down to the early part of the first century B.C., after which there is here, as in most other towns in Roman Asia, an interval before the coinage begins again in Imperial times. The inscr. on the autonomous bronze coins is ΣΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ, and they bear magistrates’ names, either in monogram form or at full length, in nominative case, without titles, but frequently with the addition of the patronymic, e. g. ‘Ηραιος Ιππιου νεωτ. (B. M. C., Lyd., Pl. XXIV. 16). Among the types of the autonomous bronze coins are Heads of Apollo, Herakles, Dionysos, City-Tyche, and Artemis. Rev. Club; Apollo standing; Lion; Horned panther with spear in mouth; Zeus Lydios; Athena standing; Demeter standing; &c.

Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Valerian Jun. Inscr., ΣΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ; or, from Tiberius to Caligula, ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΩΝ ΣΑΡΔΙΑ- ΝΩΝ, and later CΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ, with additional title ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (coin of Antinoüs), Β ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (coin of Albinus), or ΤΡΙC ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ (coins of Elagabalus and later) (see B. M. C., Lyd., p. cvii). In addition to the Neocory, other titles enjoyed by Sardes in later days were ΜΗΤΡΟ-

ΠΟΛΙC ΑCΙΑC (from Sept. Sev.), and ΑCΙΑC, ΛΥΔΙΑC, ΕΛΛΑΔΟC, Α ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙC CΑΡΔΙC (Elagabalus). These titles may have been assumed in connexion with public Games celebrated at Sardes such as the ΚΟΙΝΑ ΑCΙΑC, the ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΙΑ (Caracalla and Geta), the ΧΡVCΑΝΤΙΝΑ, ΧΡΥCΑΝΘΙΝΑ or ΧΡΥCΑΝΘЄΙΑ (from Severus onwards), and the ΚΟΡΑΙΑ ΑΚΤΙΑ (Caracalla, &c.). Magistrates. Augustus to Caligula, γραμματευς, but usually without title in nomina- tive case. From Caligula onwards the names are in the genitive case, usually with επι, and down to L. Verus are frequently distin- guished as στρατηγοι. This title is of rare occurrence after the time of Severus, that of αρχων being substituted for it. Other and more honourable titles which are exceptionally met with are αρχιερευς, time of Caligula; ανθυπατος, time of Caligula and Trajan, in connexion with the names of the Proconsuls C. Asinius Pollio. A. D. 37-38, and L. Baebius Tullus, before A.D. 114. The name of another Proconsul, Marcellus, occurs without title on a coin of Nero (?). The title ‘Ασιαρχης is met with on coins of Faustina I, Severus, Caracalla, Valerian, and Gallienus.

The chief types in the Imperial period refer for the most part to the worship of ΖΕΥC ΛΥΔΙΟC; ΤΜΩΛΟC; ΜΗΝ ΑCΚΗΝΟC; ΠΕΛΟΨ; the Paphian Aphrodite ΠΑΦΙΗ; Apollo ΛΥΚΙΟC; ЄΡΜΟC; the heroes ΜΑCΝΗC or ΜΑCΑΝΗC and ΤΥΛΟC. Also ΤΥΛΟC as Triptolemos in serpent-car with ΓΗ recumbent beneath it (B. M. C., Lyd., cxiii); Herakles and Omphale; Dionysos; Athena; Demeter and Kore; with numerous others. Also Nike with title CЄΒΑCΤΗ (Nero), and Busts inscribed ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, CΑΡΔΙC, ΘΕΑ ΡΩΜΗ, &c.

Alliance coins with Pergamum, Ephesus, Hypaepa, Smyrna, Hierapolis, and Side.

Silandus, a city of no great importance on the upper Hermus (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxiii).

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Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Domitian to Sev. Alex. Inscr., CΙΛΑΝΔЄΩΝ. Magistrates—Strategos or First Archon, who is also frequently an Archiereus or the son of an Archiereus, as ЄΠΙΜ(ελητης) (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 133); also in genitive case with επι. Chief types—ЄΡΜΟC River-god Hermos recumbent, before him, on a coin of Commodus, is young Pan seen above a rock, grasping the trunk of a tree and holding a pedum; Dionysos on panther; Cultus-effigy of Kore; Busts of Athena; Demeter; Herakles; Hermes; Mên; City; &c. Also of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ, City-goddess CΙΛΑΝΔΟC.

Stratoniceia-Hadrianopolis or Indi-Stratoniceia, a town in the Caïcus valley between Germe and Acrasus. The name Indi is unex- plained; that of Stratoniceia was doubtless conferred upon the town by Eumenes II, in honour of his wife Stratonice.

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The earliest coins are Cistophori reading ΒΑ ΕΥ and ΣΤΡΑ, circ. B.C. 186. In B.C. 130 Stratoniceia ceased to exist except as a village included in the territory Of Thyatira. It regained importance in Trajan’s time, and henceforth issued Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins down to the time of Gallienus, with, from Hadrian’s time, the title ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟΛЄΙ- ΤΩΝ CΤΡΑΤΟΝЄΙΚЄΩΝ, instead of the older title ΙΝΔЄΙ., ΙΝΔΙ. ΠЄΔΙΑΤΩΝ, or ΙΝΔЄΙ. CΤΡΑΤΟΝЄΙΚЄΩΝ, by which it was known in Trajan’s reign. The Magistrate’s name, with title Strategos, appears

in the genitive case with επι or in monogram, in one instance with ΑΙΤΗCΑ[ΜЄΝΟΥ], showing that the coins were issued ‘on the motion of' or ‘at the request of' the Strategos (cf. coins of Alia, Ancyra, and Eucarpeia in Phrygia). Chief types—River-god ΚΑΙΚΟC; Zeus; Artemis Ephesia; Homonoia and Asklepios; &c. Also, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝ- ΚΛΗΤΟC; ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; CΤΡΑΤΟΝЄΙΚΙΑ; and bust of Hadrian as ΚΤΙCΤΗC.

Tabala, on the north side of the Hermus, near the modern village Burgas Kale, where there still stands a mediaeval citadel which once commanded the entrance of the Hermus gorge (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxix). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins from Marciana (?) to Gordian. Inscr., ΤΑΒΑΛЄΩΝ. Magistrates—M. Aurelius to Commodus in nomina- tive case ‘Ιερευς ανεθηκε, or in genitive case επι ιερεως: and subsequently, under Sev. Alex., the names of one or two Archons in genitive case with επι. Chief types—Kybele; Radiate axe-bearing horseman; River-god ЄΡΜΟC; Artemis Ephesia; Helios (?) in biga; Athena Nikephoros before altar; Leto with infants; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; &c.

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Thyatira, the modern Ak-Hissar, was an important city commanding an extensive territory on the upper Lycus, originally an ancient Lydian stronghold (τειρα) recolonized with a Macedonian garrison by one of the earlier Seleucidae (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxx). The earliest coins are cistophori of Eumenes II with ΘΥΑ, ΒΑ ΕΥ, and date, Β (= B.C. 188). Also autonomous bronze. Inscr., ΘΥΑΤΕΙΡΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in monogram or nominative case. Types—Head of Artemis, rev. Apollo standing, or Bow and Quiver; Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod, or Double- axe. Interval of more than 200 years till Imperial times.

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Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Claudius to Salonina. Inscr., ΘΥΑΤΙΡΗΝΟΙ, ΘΥΑΤΙΡΗΝΩΝ, or ΘΥΑΤЄΙΡΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names do not occur before the time of M. Aurelius; but in Trajan’s reign there are coins with the names of the Proconsuls, Tullus, reading ΑΝΘVΠΑ ΤΟVΛΛΩ (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 133); Fuscus, A.D. 98-102 (?), reading ΑΝΘΥ. ΦΟΥCΚΩ; Fabius Postuminus, before A.D. 112, reading ΑΝΘΥ ΠΟCΤΟΥΜЄΙΝΩ; and Hadrianus, before A.D. 114, reading ЄΠΙ ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΟΥ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΥ (Wadd., Fastes, pp. 169, 177, 179). From M. Aurelius to Gallienus the names of about thirty Strategoi occur on the coins, in genitive case with επι, three among them being distinguished as of equestrian rank (ΙΠΠΙΚΟΙ). Games—ΠΥΘΙΑ; ΑΥΓΟΥCΤЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ; ΑΥΓΟΥCΤЄΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΑ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ; ΑΥΓΟΥ- CΤЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΑ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ-all probably one and the same festival—the Τυριμνεια, or οι μεγαλοι Σεβαστοι. Τυριμνηοι αγωνες, in honour of the local divinity, Ηλιος Πiυθιος ‘Απολλων Τυριμναιος, or Tyrimnos. Chief types—Horseman (ΤΥΡΙΜΝΟC), with double-axe; Apollo Tyrim- naeos standing with double-axe, or radiate in quadriga, also carrying double-axe, and receiving agonistic crown from Emperor (Elagabalus), who stands facing him; Apollo as a healing god, standing, holding a ser- pent.; City-goddess, Thyatira, holding cultus-statue of Apollo Tyrimnaeos; River-god Lykos, or a Nymph, recumbent beneath a tree, with a humped bull approaching as if to drink; Amphion and Zethos binding Dirke to bull (cf. coins of Acrasus); Hephaestos forging helmet; Hephaestos standing; Athena or Roma standing, or seated; Dionysos; Herakles; Nemesis; Pan with grapes and pedum; Kore. Also heads of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC;


Alliance coins with Pergamum, under Trajan, as Zeus Philios (CЄ. ΓЄΡ. ΔΑΚΙ. ΦΙΛΙΟΝ ΔΙΑ) (B. M. C., Lyd., p. 320), and Sept. Severus; and with Smyrna, Sept. Severus to Philip and Otacilia (B. M. C., Lyd., Pl. XLI. 5-10).

Titacazus. This town was probably situate on the southern slopes either of Tmolus or Messogis in a wine-growing district (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxxx). Only two quasi-autonomous coins of the later Imperial period are at present known. Inscr., ΤΙΤΑΚΑΖΗΝΩΝ. Types—Obv. ΔΗΜΟC bust, or Nike standing, rev. Tyche, or Horse with palm, as on earlier coins of Aninetus.

Tmolus Aureliopolis was probably situate in one of the glens of the Tmolus range, some twenty miles south (?) of Philadelpheia (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxxxi). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Sabina to Cara- calla, &c. Inscr., ΤΜΩΛЄΙΤΩΝ, subsequently ΑVΡΗΛΙΟΠ. ΤΜΩΛ., and finally ΑVΡΗΛΙΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ; the name Aureliopolis dating from the time of Aurelius. Magistrate—Strategos, who, it would seem, from the frequent addition of ΑΝЄΘ(ηκε) and, sometimes, of ΑVΡΗΛΙΟΠΟΛΙ- ΤΑΙC in place of the genitive ΑVΡΗΛΙΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, provided, at his own expense, the occasional issues required during festival times. Chief types—Bust of Mount ΤΜΩΛΟC; Tmolos standing, carrying infant Dionysos, or crowning the seated City-goddess; Apollo in car drawn by griffins; Dionysos in car drawn by centaurs; Artemis in car drawn by stags or serpents; Demeter standing before cultus-statue of Kore; Sei- lenos seated with infant Dionysos; Herakles; Omphale; &c. Also busts of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC and ΔΗΜΟC.

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Tomaris. This town is probably correctly placed by Imhoof-Blumer near the source of the stream Cissus, some fifteen miles north-west of Thyatira (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxxxii). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Commodus to time of Severus or later. Inscr., ΤΟΜΑΡΗΝΩΝ. Magistrate—Strategos, with or without title.

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Chief types—Rape of Persephone; River-god ΚΙCCΟC; Horseman with double-axe; Pan advancing; Kybele; Tyche; Eagle; Lion; and busts of Tyche, Athena, Herakles, or ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC.

Tralles. The city of Tralles, or Tralleis, said to have been founded by Argives and Thracians (Tralli), stood upon a lofty plateau on one of the southern spurs of the Messogis range overlooking the plain of the lower Maeander (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxxxiii). Its earliest coins (bronze, late third century B.C.), belong to the period when the city bore for a short time the name Seleuceia. Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ, Humped bull with magistrates’ names in nominative case in circular Maeander border. Other specimens have ΔΙΟΣ ΛΑΡΑΣΙΟΥ or ΔΙΟΣ ΛΑΡΑΣΙΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΟΣ ΕΥΜΕΝΟΥ on the reverse, instead of the Maeander border (Imhoof, Lyd. Stadtm., 169). Zeus at Tralles was called Larasios from a sanctuary at the neighbouring village of Larasa. Zeus ‘Eumenes’ or ‘The Kindly’ may have had a separate sanctuary.

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On the defeat of Antiochus, B.C. 190, Tralles, with the rest of Lydia, was assigned to the kingdom of the Attalids, under whose gentle sway it

enjoyed peace and prosperity, and was one of the chief mints of the Cistophori. The cistophori of Tralles, with their halves and quarters, range in date from B.C. 189 down to B.C. 48. They fall into four classes : (i) with no symbol or magistrate’s monogram between the serpents, and with a varying symbol in the field. (ii) With magistrates’ monograms or symbols between serpents, and varying symbol in field. (iii) Do., but monograms resolved into, usually, four separate letters. These three classes belong to the Pergamene period before B.C. 133. Under Roman rule, from B.C. 133, the cistophori of Tralles, like those of Ephesus, bear, in addition to a magistrate’s name and a symbol, a date reckoned from the era of the Province of Asia, B.C. 134-133, but only down to B.C. 126, when the series comes abruptly to an end; and it was not until after the death of Mithradates that Tralles was again in a position to strike cisto- phori. These later cistophori (iv) are known as Proconsular, and bear the names of the Roman governors in Latin characters across the reverse, viz. T. Ampius T. f., Procos. (B.C. 58-57); C. Fabius M. f., Procos. (B.C. 57-56); C. Septumius T. f., Procos. (B.C. 56-55); C. Claudius Ap. f. Pulcher, Procos. (B.C. 55-53); and C. Fannius, Pont. Praetor (B.C. 49-48). They bear in addition the name of the municipal magistrate in Greek characters, usually at full length in the nominative case, sometimes with titles ιερευς or στεφανηφορος (B. M. C., Lyd., Pl. XLV).

During the Mithradatic war and the brief rebellion in Asia Minor against the Roman domination, B.C. 88-84, Tralles, like Ephesus, Perga- mum, Miletus, Smyrna, and Erythrae, in Asia, and Athens, in Europe, seems to have issued, probably for war expenses, and perhaps also for the sake of emphasizing its independence of Roman suzerainty, a few gold staters, of which the only specimen at present known is in the Waddington Collection, Paris. Obv. Head of Zeus; Rev. ΤΡΑΛΛΙΑ- ΝΩ[Ν], Humped bull on Maeander symbol (Invent. Wadd., Pl. XIV. 23).

There are also autonomous bronze coins, second or first century B.C., inscr. ΤΡΑΛΛΙΑΝΩΝ, and Magistrate’s name in nominative case (B. M. C., Lyd., Pl. XXXIV).

In B.C. 26 Tralles was ruined by a great earthquake. Augustus helped to restore it, and, in his honour, it adopted the name of Caesareia; and from this time down to the reign of Nero the coins of Tralles are inscribed simply ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΩΝ, with or without the head of the Emperor. From Nero to Domitian the coins sometimes read ΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ ΤΡΑΛΛΙΑΝΩΝ, and, after Domitian down to the time of Gallienus, ΤΡΑΛΛΙΑΝΩΝ only, with the occasional addition, from Caracalla's time, of ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ or ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΩΝ CΕΒΑC[ΤΩΝ], or of ΤΡΑΛΛΙΑΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΑΔΟC, this last probably a self-assumed title; cf. Πρωτων ‘Ασιας at Ephesus and Smyrna.

On the quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins the magistrate’s name is in the nominative case down to Nero’s time. From Domitian onwards the name is usually preceded by επι γρ[αμματεως], and in the time of Gordian and Philip by επι γρ[αμματεων] των περι τον δεινα, implying that the coinage was sometimes issued in the name of the whole board of magistrates, with special mention of the President’s name. The Town Council of Tralles is sometimes distinguished by the title ΚΛΑΥΔΙΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, probably because the Emperor Claudius had endowed it with some special privileges.


The chief types of the coins of Tralles refer to the cultus of Zeus, Apollo, Helios, and Selene. The large coins of Ant. Pius exhibit most interesting reverses, e.g. ΔΙΟC ΓΟΝΑΙ ‘Jovis incunabula’, the infant Zeus nursed by Adrasteia, with three Kuretes grouped around; Dionysos and Apollo in car drawn by panther and goat ridden by Seilenos; Selene in biga of bulls; the Nuptials of Io, ЄΙΟΥC ΓΑΜΟΙ, showing Io as a veiled bride conducted by Hermes as νυμφαγωγος, or the meeting of Zeus with Io in her father’s cow-shed (βουστασις) (Aesch., Prom. Vinct. 652); ΤΡΑΛΛЄΥC ΚΤΙCCΤΗC (sic) The founder as a standing warrior (Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 203). These types refer to the Argive origin of the city. Other less characteristic types are—Dionysos supported by satyr; Helios in quadriga; Rape of Kore; Hekate triformis; Artemis Ephesia before seated Zeus. Also busts of ΖЄΥC ΛΑΡΑCΙΟC; ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΗΛΙΟC; ΗΛΙΟC CЄΒΑCΤΟC; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; and figures of Apollo ΠΥΘΙΟC and ΛΥΔΙΟC.


Alliance coins with Smyrna and another uncertain city (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 136). Ephesus and Pergamum struck, at their own mints, alliance coins with Tralles.

Tripolis [Apollonia ?]. The city of Tripolis, with a mixed population of Lydians, Carians, and Phrygians (hence perhaps its name), formed one of the group of cities surrounding the Lycus valley where it joined that of the Maeander (B. M. C., Lyd., p. cxlvii). Imhoof (Lyd. Stadtm., 37) conjectures that it was originally called Apollonia, and assigns to it autonomous Æ of the first century B.C. Obv. Head of Zeus; Rev. ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ, Rider with double-axe over shoulder, Maeander symbol beneath. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΤΡΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ or ΤΡΙΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates from Augustus to Trajan only, in nominative case; under Tiberius with title Φιλοκαισαρ (cf. Imhoof, Lyd. Stadtm., p. 119). In Trajan’s time a coin was struck with the legend ΘЄΟΔΩΡΟC Β. ЄΧΑΡΑ[ΞЄΝ]; cf. a contemporary coin of Ephesus with ο [νε]ω[κορος] ‘Εφε[σιων] δη[μος] επεχορ[αξεν] (B. M. C., Ion., p. 76).

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It is remarkable that Ephesus and Tripolis seem to be the only cities of any importance in the Roman Province of Asia, whose coins, after Trajan’s time, do not bear, as a general rule, the names of the local magistrates, Grammateus, Strategos, or Archon. The coins of the island of Samos in Imperial times are also without magistrates’ names.

Chief types—Amazon (?), or perhaps male rider, on horseback, with double-axe over shoulder; River-god ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟC; ΛΗΤΩ seated or running, carrying her twins, or in temple; Apollo; Artemis; Zeus Lydios; Dionysos; Demeter; Ares; ΖЄVC CΑΡΑΠΙC; Isis; Hermes; Nemesis; Eirene; &c. Also busts of ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ or ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; Helios; &c.


Alliance coins with Laodiceia ad Lycum (B. M. C., Lyd., p. 378).