[G. L. Castelli, Siciliae nummi veteres. Palermo, 1781.
A. Salinas, Le monete delle antiche città di Sicilia. Palermo, 1871.
Landolina-Paternò, Ricerche numm. sull’ antica Sicilia. Palermo, 1872.
British Museum Catalogue, Coins of Sicily (Poole, Head, and Gardner), 1876.
B. V. Head, Coinage of Syracuse, 1874.
P. Gardner, Sicilian Studies (Num. Chron.), 1876.
R. Weil, Die Künstlerinschriften der sicilischen Münzen (Winckelmannsfest-Progr. 44), 1884.
A. J. Evans, Syracusan Medallions and their Engravers, 1892.
A. J. Evans, Contributions to Sicilian Numismatics (Num. Chron.), 1894, 1896.
Th. Reinach, Sur la valeur relative des métaux monétaires dans la Sicile greque (L'Histoire par les monnaies), 1902.
A. Holm, Geschichte des sicilischen Münzwesens (in vol. iii. of his Geschichte Alterthum, 1870-1902).
Du Chastel de la Howardries, Syracuse, ses monnaies d'argent, 1898.
G. Tropea, Numismatica Siciliota del Mus, Mandralisca in Cefalù, 1901.
G. F. Hill, Coins of Ancient Sicily, 1903.
Bahrfeldt, Die römisch-sicilischen Münzen (Rev. Suisse), 1904.]
Period I. Before B.C. 480. First in this period comes the coinage of the Chalcidian colonies, Naxus, Zancle, and Himera. These early coins, some of which may belong to the end of the seventh century, follow the Aeginetic (?) standard, although as a rule the drachms do not exceed 90, nor the obols 15 grs. It is possible that this standard was imported, together with the worship of Dionysos, from the island of Naxos, whence, as the name given to the earliest Sicilian settlement implies, a preponderating element of the first body of colonists must have been drawn. Possibly, however, the pieces of 90 grs. are merely Euboïc-Attic octobols (see Holm, pp. 560 ff.).
Somewhat later, probably about the middle of the sixth century, begins the coinage of the Dorian colonies, Syracuse, Gela, Agrigentum, &c. The standard here is certainly not (with one possible exception) the Aeginetic but the Euboïc-Attic, which was soon universally adopted throughout the island, even by those Chalcidian colonies which had begun to coin on the supposed Aeginetic standard.
The definite change to the Attic standard took place at Naxus some time after B.C. 498, at Zancle between B.C. 493 and 480, and at Himera in B.C. 482.
The original Sikel and Sicanian population of Sicily possessed, how- ever, a standard of their own, based on the pound or litra of bronze. To this weight of bronze corresponded a silver litra of 13.5 grs. Even during the earliest period of the Aeginetic (?) standard Zancle struck silver coins of this weight, and as it happened to be exactly 1/5 of the Attic drachm, it was readily adopted by those Greek cities which used the Euboïc-Attic standard, as an additional denomination slightly heavier than their own obol, from which they took care to distinguish it by giving it a different type, or by a mark of value. Thus at Syracuse the litra was marked with a sepia and the obol with a wheel.
The coins struck in Sicily during this first period exhibit all the characteristic peculiarities of archaic art, but they are far more advanced, both in style and execution, than the contemporary coins either of Magna Graecia or of Greece proper.
Period II. B.C. 480-413. The great victory of the Greeks over the Carthaginians at Himera in B.C. 480 was the prelude to a long interval
Towards the end of this period (not before 440) a new feature appears on the Sicilian coins, in the shape of the signatures of the artists. The following names of Sicilian engravers occur on coins of this period: at Syracuse, Eumenes or Eumenos, Sosion, Euainetos, Euth[ymos?], Phrygillos, and Euarchidas; and at Catana, Euainetos.
Even before the age of Gelon and Hieron, whose victories at the great Greek games were celebrated by Pindar, it had been usual at many Greek towns in Sicily to issue coins on the occasion of agonistic contests with appropriate types, such as a quadriga crowned by Nike.
It seems nevertheless certain that as a general rule no one special victory can have been alluded to in these agonistic types; they are rather a general expression of pride in the beauty of the horses and chariots which the city could enter in the lists, while perhaps they may likewise have been regarded, though in no very definite way, as a sort of invocation of the god who was the dispenser of victories: the Olympian Zeus, the Pythian Apollo, or some local divinity, perhaps a River-god or a Fountain- nymph, in whose honour games may have been celebrated in Sicily itself. Some such local import would account for the presence of the victorious quadriga on the money of some of the non-Hellenic towns in Sicily, which would certainly never have been admitted to compete at the Olympian, the Pythian, or other Greek games. The manner in which the quadriga is treated may be taken as a very accurate indica- tion of date. Down to about B.C. 440 the horses are seen advancing at a slow and stately pace; after that date they are always in high and often violent action, prancing or galloping; not until quite a late period (on the coins of Philistis) are they again represented as walking. The only exception to this rule is the mule-car on the coins of Messana, where the animals are never in rapid movement.
Period III. B.C. 413-346. The defeat of the Athenians was fol- lowed by an extraordinary outburst of artistic activity on the part of the great Sicilian cities, especially Syracuse. Syracuse and Agrigentum now issued their magnificent dekadrachms. The following names of engravers, among others, occur on coins of this period: at Syracuse, Euainetos, Kimon, Eukleidas, Parmenidas; at Agrigentum, Myr...; at Camarina, Exakestidas; at Himera, Mai...; at Messana, Kimon, Anan (?)...; at Naxus, Prokles; and at Catana, Herakleidas, Choirion) and Prokles.
One of the most striking peculiarities of Sicilian coins is the frequency with which personifications of Rivers and Nymphs are met with. Thus
on coins of Himera the type is that of the Nymph of the warm springs; on a coin of Naxus we see the head of a river Assinos (probably the same as the Akesines); at Catana we get a full-face head of the river Amenanos; at Gela and Agrigentum we see the rivers of those towns, the Gelas and the Akragas; while at Camarina the head of the Hipparis appears. On the coins of Selinus the rivers Hypsas and Selinos are represented as offering sacrifice.
In the archaic period the Sicilian rivers usually take the form of a man-headed bull, but in the transitional and fine periods they more often assume the human form, and appear as youths with short bulls’ horns over their foreheads.
Among the nymphs represented on Sicilian coins are Himera, Arethusa, Kyane (?), Kamarina, and Eurymedusa.
The Carthaginian invasion at the close of the fifth century spread ruin through the island and put an end to the coinage almost every- where. Syracuse alone of all the Greek silver-coining cities continued the uninterrupted issue of her beautiful tetradrachms and dekadrachms, and it was these which served as models for the Siculo-Punic currency of the Carthaginian towns.
It was probably at the beginning of this period that gold and bronze coins were first struck in Sicily, at any rate in considerable quantities. At the time of Dion’s expedition electrum was also introduced, and at Syracuse a large bronze litra was issued, the size of which shows that it was intended as real money and not as a token of artificial value.
Period IV. B.C. 345-317. With the expedition of the Corinthian Timoleon (B.C. 345) a new era began for Sicily. Timoleon was every- where the Liberator, and his influence is especially noticeable in the Sicilian coinage of his time. There are a few coin-types which now appear for the first time, not only at Syracuse, but at many other towns which Timoleon freed from their oppressors. Two of these types are the head of Zeus Eleutherios and the Free Horse. Pegasos-staters (first introduced by Dion in the previous period) and other coins with Corin- thian types were also now coined in Sicily in large quantities. The number of inland towns which at this particular time began to coin money is remarkable, e.g. Adranum, Aetna (Inessa), Agyrium, Alaesa, Centuripae, Herbessus, &c.
At all the above-mentioned Sikel cities we note the appearance of large and heavy bronze coins, which, unlike the older small bronze currency, are without any marks of value. This monetization of bronze was probably due to the increasing influence of the native Sikel peoples of the interior of the island, accus- tomed to use bronze as a medium of exchange, who now combined to support Timoleon, and issued at Alaesa, and perhaps elsewhere, a new federal currency in bronze, with the legends ΚΑΙΝΟΝ and ΣΥΜΜΑΧΙΚΟΝ.
Period V. B.C. 317-241. With the usurpation of Agathocles, Syra- cuse once more monopolizes the right of coinage for the whole of Sicily, even more distinctly than in the time of Dionysius. The civic coinages are entirely dominated by those of the great rulers, Agathocles, Hicetas, Pyrrhus, and Hieron II, down to the time of the First Punic War.
Period VI. B.C. 241-210. At the close of the First Punic War all Sicily, except the dominions of Hieron along the eastern coast from Tauromenium to Helorus, passed into the hands of the Romans. The immediate result of the new political status of the Sicilian communities was the issue of bronze money at a great number of mints, many of which, such as Amestratus, Cephaloedium, Iaetia, Lilybaeum, Menaenum, Paropus, Petra, &c., had never before possessed the right of coinage. Within the dominions of Syracuse, Tauromenium alone continued to coin in all metals.
Period VII. After B.C. 210. After the fall of Syracuse and the constitution of all Sicily into a Province of the Roman Republic, bronze coins continued to be issued at Syracuse, Panormus, and a great many other towns, probably-for at least a century. These late coins possess, however, but slight interest.
Abacaenum (Tripi) was a Sikel town situated some eight miles from the coast, towards the north-east extremity of the island.
Inscr. ΑΒΑΚΑΙΝΙΝΟΝ (usually abbreviated, but sometimes divided between Obv. and Rev.).
|Head of Zeus laureate.||Boar. Symbols: acorn, corn-grain.
AR Litra, c. 13 grs. and Hemilitron.
|Head of nymph, facing, with flying hair.||Sow and pig. |
|Female head r.||Boar. |
AR Hemilitron 6 grs.
|Female head, hair in sphendone.||ΑΒΑΚ[ΑΙΝΙ]ΝΟΝ Forepart of man-
headed bull. |
Æ Size .85
|Id.||ΑΒΑΚΑΙΝΙΝΩΝ Forepart of bull.
Æ Size .8
|Head of Apollo (?).||Bull walking. |
Æ Size .85
|Id.||Warrior with spear standing r. [Tropea, p. 7]
|Id.||Lyre [ibid.] |
The bull is probably the little mountain-torrent Helikon.
Acrae (Palazzuolo-Acreide) stood on a height some twenty miles due west of Syracuse, at the sources of the river Anapos. It was a depen- dency of Syracuse down to the capture of that city by the Romans.
|Head of Persephone (?) wearing wreath.||ΑΚΡΑΙΩΝ Demeter standing; with
torch and sceptre. |
Adranum (Aderno), on the upper course of the river Adranos, a few miles south-west of Mt. Aetna, was founded by Dionysius circ. B.C. 400, and was dependent upon Syracuse until the time of Timoleon (B.C. 345), when it first struck coins. It owed its celebrity to the temple of the Sicilian divinity Adranos (Diod. xiv. 37).
The bronze coins of Adranum apparently all belong to one period :—
|Head of Apollo, sometimes with ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ beneath.||ΑΔΡΑΝΙΤΑΝ (sometimes wanting),
Æ 3 sizes, 1.2, .95 & .8
|Head of young River Adranos, horned.||ΑΔΡΑΝΙΤΑΝ Rushing Bull.
|Head of Sikelia wreathed with myrtle, hair in sphendone.||No inscr. Lyre.
|Female head.||ΑΔΡΑ Corn-grain in wreath. |
Aetna. This name was at first given by Hieron to the city of Catana, when in B.C. 476 he expelled the Catanaeans and repeopled their city with a mixed body of Syracusans and Peloponnesians. For the coins struck at Catana during the fifteen years that it bore the name of Aetna, see Catana. The Aetnaeans (when they were expelled in B.C. 461) retired to Inessa (S. Maria di Licodia) on the southern slope of Mt. Aetna, about ten miles north-west of Catana, and to this place they transferred the name of Aetna and continued to look upon Hieron as their oekist (Diod. xi. 76). Aetna was always more or less dependent upon Syracuse, and was garrisoned by Syracusans before the Athenian war (Thuc. iii. 103). In B.C. 396 Dionysius established at Aetna a garrison of Campa- nians, who held the town until the time of Timoleon, B.C. 339, when the city regained its freedom. It is to the Campanian period that the first issue of its coins belongs.
|Youthful head [Rev. Num., 1869, Pl. VI. 1].||ΑΙΤΝ Winged fulmen, as on coins of
|ΑΙΤΝΑΙΩΝ Head of Athena.||Free horse, rein loose. |
|„ Head of Persephone with corn-wreath.||Id. |
The resemblance in style between the last mentioned coin and certain pieces of Nacona and Entella, issued while those cities were in the hands of the Campanians, is striking.
|ΙΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ Head of Zeus Eleutherios.||ΑΙΤΝΑΙΩΝ Fulmen. |
The coinage is not resumed until the Roman period.
|Trias. Head of Apollo radiate.||ΑΙΤΝΑΙΩΝ Warrior standing, mark of
value •••. |
|Hexas. Head of Persephone.||ΑΙΤΝΑΙΩΝ Cornucopiae.
|„ Head of Athena [Tropea, p. 7]||ΑΙΤΝ Forepart of man-headed bull. |
Agrigentum was by far the richest and most magnificent city on the south coast of Sicily. The ruined temples still to be seen at Girgenti would alone be sufficient to prove its ancient splendour. It stood on a height a few miles from the sea near the confluence of the two rivers Akragas and Hypsas.
Its coinage begins during the prosperous period which intervened between the fall of the tyrant Phalaris (circ. B.C. 550), and the accession of Theron to supreme power (circ. B.C. 488).
|Eagle with closed wings.||Crab. |
AR Didrachms. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. IX. 24.]
The Eagle and the Crab have been usually taken as emblems of Zeus and Poseidon, but it may be doubted whether the crab is not in this case the fresh-water crab common in the rivers of Italy, Sicily, and Greece. If so, the crab represents the river Akragas and is the παρασημον of the city.
Theron of Agrigentum made himself master of Himera, B.C. 482. Α comparison of certain coins of Himera bearing Agrigentine types, which can only belong to the time of Theron, with some of the latest specimens of the series above described, is sufficient to fix the date of the latter.
The great victory of Theron and Gelon of Syracuse over the Cartha- ginians at Himera resulted in the further aggrandizement of Agrigentum. Theron died B.C. 472, after which a democracy was established, and a period of unexampled prosperity commenced which terminated only with the Carthaginian invasion in B.C. 406.
Numismatically, however, this space of sixty-seven years must be divided into two periods, which may be characterized as those of Transi- tional Art, B.C. 472-circ. B.C. 413, and of Finest Art, B.C. 413-406.
Inscriptions and Types (Eagle and Crab), as in the Period of archaic art. The Eagle sometimes stands on the capital of a column. On the reverse symbols are of frequent occurrence, flying Nike, rose, star, volute ornament (Fig. 65), and others.
Denominations. Tetradrachm, Didrachm, Drachm with letters ΠΕΝ (= Pentalitron), Litra (with ΛΙ), Pentonkion with mark of value :·:. There are also coins with obv. eagle’s head, viz. litra, rev. tripod; half- litra (?), rev. A; and hexas, rev. :. A bronze coin with eagle and crab also belongs to the close of this period.
The Tetradrachm apparently was not struck at Agrigentum before circ. B.C. 472.
To this period may also be attributed a series of very strange-looking lumps of bronze, made in the shape of a tooth with a flat base, having on one side an eagle or eagle’s head, and on the other a crab, while on the base
1 A specimen at Paris (Salinas, Pl. IV. 15), weighing 173-77 grains, appears to show that Agrigentum also issued coins of the Aeginetic standard.
The weights of these coins point to a litra of about 750 grs.
In this period the coinage reflects the splendour to which Agrigentum had now attained.
|ΑΚΡΑ Eagle devouring serpent. Mark of value ••||ΣΙΛΑΝΟΣ Crab.
AV wt. 20.4 grs.[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XVI. 14.]
|ΑΚΡ Eagle devouring serpent.
[Strozzi Sale Catal. 1288.]
|Crab; below, dolphin.
AV 20.5 grs.
|Two eagles standing on a hare on the summit of a mountain; one lifts his head as if screaming, while the other, with wings raised, is about to attack the hare with its beak. Symbol in field: Locust.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑΣ Male charioteer driving
quadriga. Above an eagle flying
with a serpent in its claws. Beneath,
a crab (Fig. 66).
AR Dekadrachm, wt. 670 grs.
The finest known specimen of this rare and beautiful coin is in the Munich collection. See Th. Reinach, L'Histoire par les Monnaies, pp. 89-98.
|Similar type, sometimes with magis- trates’ names ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ or ΣΙΛΑΝΟΣ. Symbols: locust, bull's head, lion’s head, head of River-god.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΟΝ Quadriga driven by winged Nike or by charioteer crowned by flying Nike. Symbols: crab, Skylla, knotted staff or vine- branch, &c. Engraver’s name ΜΥΡ.|
|Similar, or single Eagle devouring hare.||Crab; beneath, Skylla or river-fish.|
Didrachms, Drachms, Hemidrachms, and Litrae, or Obols, with simpler varieties of the above types; the carapace of the crab on the drachm resembles a human face.
As a powerful composition the type of the two eagles with the hare is perhaps superior to any other contemporary Sicilian coin-type, and is certainly the work of an artist of no mean capacity. The subject cannot fail to remind us of the famous passage in one of the grandest choruses of the Agamemnon (ll. 110-120), where the poet describes just such
οιωνων βασιλευς βασιλευσι νεων ο κελαινος, ο τ’ εξοπιν αργας,The victorious quadriga is an agonistic type of a class very prevalent in Sicily. The occasion of its adoption at Agrigentum may have been the Olympian games of B.C. 412, in which one of the victors was Exainetos, an Agrigentine citizen who, on his return to his native town, was brought into the city in a chariot escorted by 300 bigae drawn by white horses (Diod. xiii. 82). But see above, p. 116.
φανεντες ικταρ μελαθρων, χερος εκ δοριπαλτου, παμπρεπτοις εν εδραισιν,
βοσκομενοι λαγιναν ερικυμονα φερματι γενναν, βλαβεντα λοισθιον δρομων.
The names ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝ and ΣΙΛΑΝΟΣ are too conspicuous to be the signatures of artists; they must therefore be regarded as magistrates.
|Hemilitron. Eagle with spread wings on fish, hare, or serpent.||Crab; mark of value :::. Symbols:
Conch-shell, sepia, Triton with shell,
pistrix, hippocamp, crayfish, &c. The
whole in incuse circle.
Æ Average wt. 290 grs.
|Trias. Eagle tearing hare.||Crab. Symbol: Crayfish. Mark of
value ••• |
Æ Average wt. 124 grs.
|Hexas. Eagle carrying in claws hare, pig, fish, or bird.||Crab. Symbols: Two fishes or one fish.
Mark of value ••
Æ Average wt. 115 grs.
|Uncia. Eagle with closed wings on fish.||Crab. Symbol: Fish. Mark of value •
Æ Average wt. 58 grs.
Other small bronze coins (Salinas, xi. 24-7) have modifications of the above types (eagle’s head, crab’s claw, &c.).
The actual weights of these bronze coins, large and small, together yield an average of 613 grs. for the litra. This perhaps shows that the litra had already been reduced from 3375 grs., its original weight, to 1/5 of that weight, or 675 grs., a reduction which is thought by Mommsen (Momm.-Blacas, i. p. 112) to have taken place in the time of Dionysius, but which the weights of the bronze coins of Camarina (p. 130), and Himera (p. 146), if they are of any value as evidence, prove to have occurred much earlier.
After the memorable destruction of Agrigentum by the Carthaginians in B.C. 406, the surviving inhabitants appear to have returned to their ruined homes; but until Timoleon’s time the town can hardly be said to have existed as an independent state. No new coins were issued in the interval, but the bronze money already in circulation seems to have been frequently countermarked in this period.
Timoleon, circ. B.C. 338, recolonized the city (Plut. Tim. 35) with a body of Velians, and from this time it began to recover some small degree of prosperity.
|Crab.||Free horse. |
AR ½ Drachm.
|Head of Zeus.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Eagle erect, with
AR wt. 18.7grs. = 1½ Litra.
AR wt. 13.5 grs. = 1 Litra.
|Head of bearded river-god.||Id. |
AR wt. 10.5 grs.= 1 Obol.
|Hemilitron. ΑΚΡΑΓΑΣ Head of young River-god Akragas, horned.||Eagle with closed wings standing on
Ionic capital. In field, crab. Mark
of value :::. |
Æ Av. wt. 268 grs.
|Uncia. Eagle standing.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑ Crab. Mark of value •
Æ wt. 61 grs. or less.
268 grs. is the average weight of the four specimens of the hemilitron in the British Museum, according to which the Litra would weigh 536 grs., which is intermediate between the first and the second reduc- tions of the Litra.
There are also bronze coins of this period without marks of value, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle devouring hare, or winged fulmen. Size, .75-.55.
The coins attributed to this period are not numerous, owing to the fact that during the greater part of the reign of Agathocles at Syracuse (B.C. 317-289), Agrigentum was compelled to acknowledge the supremacy of that city, which for a time usurped the right of coining money for all those parts of the island subject to her dominion.
After the death of Agathocles, a tyrant named Phintias rose to the supreme power at Agrigentum, and extended his dominions also over other parts of Sicily.
|ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΟΣ Head of Apollo.||ΦΙ Two eagles on hare. |
|ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝ Id.|| „ Eagle looking back. |
Coins struck by Phintias for all his dominions.
|Head of river Akragas, horned, and with flowing hair, crowned with reeds. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. A. 16.]||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΦΙΝΤΙΑ Wild boar. |
|Head of Artemis.|| „ „ Id. |
|Id., with ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ.|| „ „ Id.
The type of these coins illustrates in a remarkable manner a passage of Diodorus (Reliq. xxii. 7), in which he tells how Phintias ειδεν οναρ δηλουν την του βιου καταστροφην, υν αγριον κυνηγοντος ορμησαι κατ’ αυτου την υν, και την πλενραν αυτου τοις οδουσι παταξαι και διελασαυτα την πληγην κτειναι. We seem here to have a clear instance of a coin-type having been chosen with the avowed object of propitiating the goddess Artemis whose anger the tyrant probably thought he had incurred.
Nearly all the remaining coins of Agrigentum may be classed to this period, during which the city was for the most part an independent ally of the Carthaginians against the Romans and Hieron II.
On the conclusion of the First Punic War (B.C. 241) Agrigentum passed under Roman dominion.
|Head of Zeus.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝ ΤΙΝΩΝ Eagle with spread
wings, various letters in the field.
AR 58 and 26 grs.
|Id. [Salinas. xiii. 11.]|| „ Fulmen.
AR Litra 12.7 grs.
|Head of Apollo, a serpent sometimes crawling up in front.||Two eagles on hare. |
|ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Young head of Zeus Soter diademed.||ΔΙΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ Eagle on fulmen.
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Tripod. |
|Id.|| „ Naked warrior
thrusting with spear.
Cicero (Verr. iv. 43) mentions a statue of Apollo by Myron which stood in the temple of Asklepios at Agrigentum. The curious coin-type above described, where a serpent is seen crawling up the face of Apollo, taken in conjunction with the words of Cicero, seems to indicate a connexion between the cults of Apollo and Asklepios at Agrigentum.
|Head of Persephone. Behind, CΩCΙΟC, or in front, ΑCΚΛΑΠΟC.||ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Asklepios standing.
|Head of Apollo. [Salinas, xiii. 12, 13.]|| „ Striding male figure
with javelin. |
|Head of Zeus.|| „ Eagle on fulmen.
|Head of Asklepios.||Serpent-staff. |
The three coins last described sometimes occur with the name of the Roman Quaestor Manius Acilius on the reverse instead of ΑΚΡΑΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ; the same magistrate also issued from Agrigentum an As with the head of Janus and his name in a laurel-wreath, and a semis with the head of Jupiter.
For the Imperial coins of Agrigentum struck under Augustus, see Holm, p. 727, nos. 735-6.
Agyrium (Agira) was a large town in the interior of Sicily, standing on a steep hill, almost midway between Enna and Centuripae. At this town Herakles, during his wanderings in Sicily, had been received with divine honours, and down to a late period Herakles, his kinsman Iolaos, and Geryon, continued to be revered there. Its coins fall into three periods.
|Eagle with closed wings.||ΑΓΥΡΙΝΑΙ Wheel. |
|ΑΓΥΡΙΝΑΙΟΝ Young male head (Iolaos ?).||ΠΑΛΑΓΚΑΙΟΣ Forepart of man-
These two coins probably belong to the time when the city was governed by a tyrant named Agyris, a contemporary and ally of Dionysius (Diod. xiv. 9, 78, 95), or at latest to the time of Dion. Palankaios is perhaps the name of a river.
About the middle of the fourth century Agyrium was governed by another tyrant, by name Apolloniades. This despot was deposed by Timoleon, B. G. 339. The coins which I would give to the years imme- diately preceding the liberation by Timoleon are the following:—
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||Forepart of man-headed bull. |
|Man-headed bull, and star.||Id. |
|Head of young Herakles or Iolaos wearing taenia and lion-skin.||ΑΓΥΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ Leopard devouring a
|Head of Apollo, behind, bow.|| „ Hound on scent. |
|Head of Zeus. [Tropea, p. 8.]|| „ Female figure sacri-
|Head of Apollo radiate. [Tropea, p. 9.]|| „ Warrior standing with
spear and shield |
The following, from their types, appear to be subsequent to B.C. 339 (inscr. ΑΓΥΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ or abbreviation):—
|ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ Head of Zeus Eleutherios laur.||Fulmen; in field r., eagle (as on con-
temporary coin of Syracuse). |
|Head of Athena in crested helmet.||Club and bow (?) (restruck on previous
|Head of young River-god horned.||Free horse. |
In the third century we hear of Agyrium as subject to Phintias of Agrigentum. Subsequently the territory of the city was largely in- creased by Hieron of Syracuse, and even under Roman rule it remained a place of some importance. It is to this late period that the following coins belong:—
|ΕΠΙ CΩΠΑΤΡΟΥ Head of Zeus.||ΑΓΥΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ Iolaos in hunter's
dress, holds horn and pedum, at his
feet, dog. Above, Nike. |
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΑΓΥΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ Iolaos burning the
necks of the Hydra with a hot iron.
Alaesa (Tusa) was built on a hill about eight stadia from the sea (Diod. xiv. 16), on the north side of Sicily, in the year B.C. 403, by a colony of Sikels under a chief named Archonides, after whom the city was sometimes called Alaesa Archonidea (cf. the inscriptions on the later coins).
Its earliest coins date from the period of Timoleon’s war with the Carthaginians (B.C. 340), when many Sikel and Sicanian towns joined the alliance against the Carthaginians (Diod. xvi. 73). From the in- scription ΑΛΑΙΣΙΝΩΝ ΣΥΜΜΑΧΙΚΟΝ Alaesa would seem to have been among the chief of the Sicilian allies of Timoleon, but, as the word
|ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ Head of Zeus Eleutherios.||ΑΛΑΙΣΙΝΩΝ ΣΥΜΜΑΧΙΚΟΝ Torch
between two ears of corn (Head, Syr.,
p. 37). |
|ΣΙΚΕΛΙΑ Head of nymph Sikelia.||ΣΥΜΜΑΧΙΚΟΝ Id. |
|ΑΡΧΑΓΕΤΑΣ Head of Apollo.|| „ „ |
|„ „ „|| „ Fulmen and grapes.
|Head of Sikelia, in myrtle-wreath.||[ΑΛΑ]ΙΣΙΝΩΝ Lyre. |
|ΚΑΙΝΟΝ Free horse prancing.||Griffin running, l.
The heads of Zeus Eleutherios, of Apollo as original leader of the colonists, and of Sikelia herself, are all most appropriate on coins of an alliance formed under the auspices of Timoleon, as are also the torch and ears of corn, the symbols of Demeter and Persephone, under whose special protection Timoleon set out (Plut. Tim. c. 8; Diod. xvi. 66). The remaining coins of Alaesa belong to the following century, when it began, simultaneously with many other Sicilian towns, to coin money again after its submission to Rome during the First Punic War.
|Head of Zeus.||ΑΛΑΙΣΑΣ ΑΡΧ. Eagle. |
|Head of Apollo.|| „ „ Clasped hands. |
|„ „|| „ „ Apollo beside lyre
|„ „||Lyre. |
|„ „|| „ Tripod. |
|Head of young Dionysos.|| „ „ Naked figure resting
on spear. |
|„ „|| „ „ Man-headed bull.
[Tropea, p. 10, no. 8.]
|„ „|| „ „ Cuirass. |
|Head of Artemis.||,, „ Quiver and bow.
|„ „ [Tropea, p. 10, no. 12.]|| „ „ Dove or eagle. |
|ΑΛΑΙΣΑΣ Head of Artemis.||Archer. |
|Head of Demeter. [Tropea, p. 11, no. 18.]||ΑΛΑΙΣΑΣ Dancing female figure. |
Considerably later than the foregoing are the coins of Alaesa with Latin inscriptions:—
|HAL. ARC. Head of Artemis (?).||Tripod. |
|„ ,, „ „||CAEC. R. II VIR Lyre. |
|HALAESA ARC. Head of Apollo (?).||M. CASSIVSM. ANT Wreath. |
To the time of Augustus belong coins with the name of the magistrate M. PACCIVS MACXV(mus): see Holm, p. 729, nos. 754, 754a.
Aluntium (San Marco d'Alunzio), on the north coast of the island
|Head of Athena in round, crested helmet.||ΑΛΟΝΤΙΝΟΝ Sepia. |
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΑΛΟΝΤΙΝΩΝ Eagle on part of car-
|Head of Patron in Phrygian helmet.||ΑΛΟΝΤΙΝΩΝ Man-headed bull (River-
god Acheloos ?), spouting water from
his mouth. |
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΑΛΟΝΤΙΝΩΝ Club and bow-case
|Head of young Dionysos.|| „ in two lines, within
|Head of Hermes.|| „ Caduceus. |
|Youthful head.|| „ Double cornucopiae. |
|Head of Apollo. [Tropea, p. 12, no. 8.]||ΑΛΟΝΤ Apollo standing with lyre.
Amestratus (Mistretta), about eight miles south-west of Calacte. a town mentioned only by Cicero and Stephanus.
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΑΜΗSΤΡΑΤΙΝΩΝ Armed horseman
(Leukaspis ?) galloping, above ΛΕΥ.
|Head of Artemis.||ΑΜΗΣΤΡΑΤΙΝΩΝ Apollo standing
Assorus (Assaro), an inland Sikel town, midway between Enna and Agyrium.
|ASSORV Head of Apollo.||CRYSAS River-god Chrysas, naked,
standing, holding amphora and cor-
|Female head wearing stephane.||ASSORV Yoke of oxen.
The figure on the first of these coins is probably a copy of that ‘simulacrum praeclare factum ex marmore’ which Cicero (Verr. iv. 44) describes as having stood on the road from Enna to Assorus, perhaps on the bank of the river Chrysas.
Caena. Concerning the coins reading ΚΑΙΝΟΝ, sometimes ascribed to this town, see Alaesa and p. 117.
Calacte (Caronia), on the northern coast, midway between Tyndaris and Cephaloedium, was a Peloponnesian colony founded in B.C. 446 by the Sikel chief Ducetius on his return from his exile in Corinth. Its coins are all of a late period.
|Head of Athena in crested Athenian helmet.||ΚΑΛΑΚΤΙΝΩΝ Owl on amphora.
|Head of young Dionysos.|| „ Grapes. |
|Head of Apollo.||Lyre. |
|Head of Hermes.|| „ Caduceus. |
|Head of bearded Herakles.|| „ Club. [Salinas, xvi. 21.]
The first of the above coins is clearly copied from the late Athenian coins. Note the close correspondence between obv. and rev. types (Mac- donald, Coin Types, pp. 119 ff.).
Camarina was a colony of Syracuse, founded circ. B.C. 599, between, the mouths of the Oanis and the Hipparis, on the south coast of Sicily. In consequence of a revolt against Syracuse it was destroyed by that city about B.C. 552. In B.C. 495 it was rebuilt and recolonized by Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, but again destroyed about B.C. 484 by Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse. Tc this period the following archaic silver litrae seem to belong.
|ΚΑΜΑRΙΝΑΙΟΝ or ΚΑΜΑRΙΝΑΙΑ or ΚΑΜΑRΙΝΑΙΟΣ or ΚΑΜΑRΙΝΟΣ &c. Athena standing. [Babelon, Traité II. i. Nos. 2298 f.]||
Nike flying; beneath, a swan: the
whole in olive-wreath. |
AR 13 grs.
The city was once more rebuilt as a colony of Gela in B.C. 461, and from this time until the removal of its citizens to Syracuse in B.C. 405 it enjoyed great prosperity. Pindar’s fourth Olympian ode and the ode which follows it record the victory of Psaumis the Camarinaean in the chariot race B.C. 456 or 452, an agonistic victory which Poole (Coins of Camarina, p. 2) believed to be commemorated on the tetradrachms of Camarina, struck during the latter half of the fifth century.
|Corinthian helmet on round shield.
[Holm, Pl. II. 11.]
|ΚΑΜΑRΙ Dwarf fan-palm with fruit,
between two greaves.
AR Didrachm, 130 grs.
|ΚΑΜΑRΙΝΑΙΟΝ Head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin. [Gardner, Types, Pl. VI. 12.]||Quadriga driven by Athena; above, Nike
crowning her; in exergue sometimes
a swan flying or two amphorae.
On the later specimens the head of Herakles is not bearded, and an artist’s name ΕΞΑΚΕΣΤΙΔΑΣ is sometimes written on the exergual line (Fig. 67), or (abbreviated) on a diptychon before the head of Herakles.
The following gold coin (which is more probably of Camarina than of Catana) belongs to the close of this period :—
|Head of Athena; on her helmet a hippo- camp. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XVI. 19.]||Two olive-leaves with berries; between
them ΚΑ. |
AV 18 grs.
To the close of this period also belong the following beautiful didrachms :—
|Horned head of youthful River-god Hipparis, sometimes facing, and surrounded by an undulating border of waves with fish in the field; sometimes in profile with legend ΙΠΠΑΡΙΣ. Artists’ names ΕΥΑΙ [νετος] and ΕΞΑΚΕ[στιδας].||ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑ or ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑΙΟΝ The
Nymph Kamarina with inflated veil,
riding on a swan which swims
over the waves of the Camarinaean
Lake, amid which, one or more fishes
(Fig. 68). |
|Head of Nymph Kamarina facing, with hair flying loose; at sides, two fish.||ΚΑΜΑΡΙ Nike flying, holding cadu-
|ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑ Head of Kamarina, hair in sphendone; below, two dolphins.||Flying Nike carrying shield|
[N. C. 1890, p. 313, Pl. XIX. 2.]
AR ½ Drachm.
The smaller silver coins are litrae weighing 13 grs. maximum.
|Head of Athena.||Nike with streaming fillet.|
|ΚΑΜΑ Head of Nymph Kamarina.||Id.|
|ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑ Id.||Swan swimming over waves.|
Concerning these coins Poole remarks (l. c.) that nothing can be more striking than the agreement of the coin-types with the words of Pindar, ‘with both, the Nymph Kamarina holds the foremost but not the highest place in the local worship, with both, Athena is the tutelary divinity, with both, the reverence for the river Hipparis is associated with that for the sacred lake.’
The bronze coins of Camarina yield a litra of 221 grs. Cf. remarks on the bronze money of Agrigentum, p. 122, and Himera, p. 146.
|Trias. Gorgon-head.||ΚΑΜΑ Owl and lizard ••• (sometimes
also Γ). |
Æ 65 grs.
|„ Head of Athena.|| „ Id. ••• |
Æ 54 grs.
|Uncia. Gorgon-head.|| „ Id. Α and • |
Æ 14 grs.
|„ Head of Athena.|| „ Id. • |
Æ 20 grs.
In the time of Timoleon Camarina recovered to some extent from the calamities inflicted upon her by the Carthaginians (Diod. xvi. 82). It is to this period that both style and types of the following coins seem to point:—
|[ΚΑΜ]ΑΡ.. Athena standing. [Sa- linas, xvi. 25.]||Free horse with raised l. foot. |
|ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ Head of Athena in round Athenian helmet.||Free horse prancing. |
After this time no coins of Camarina are known.
Campani. To the Campanian mercenaries of Dionysius are usually attributed the following coins, of which the large bronze is struck over a Syracusan bronze litra (Holm, Nos. 370-2). They have also been given to Tauromenium (Head, Syr., p. 36), and Mataurus (Hill, Sicily, p. 185). The mon. may consist of the letters ΚΑΜ.
|Free horse.||Α in wreath. |
|Α Butting bull.||Star. |
Æ litra 1.35
|Campanian helmet.||Α in wreath. |
For other coins struck by the Campanians in Sicily see Aetna, Entella, Nacona, and Tyrrheni.
Catana, which stood at the foot of Mount Aetna, was a Chalcidian colony from Naxus.
Its inhabitants were expelled by Hieron of Syracuse B.C. 476, to make way for a colony of Syracusans. These were, however, driven out B.C. 461, and the old inhabitants restored. The name of the town was changed to Aetna by Hieron when he founded his new colony there, but it was again called Catana after B.C. 461.
|Man-headed bull with one knee bent; beneath, fish, pistrix, or floral orna- ment; above, sometimes, branch, water-fowl, or running Seilenos. The whole within a border of dots.||ΚΑΤΑΝΕ or ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΟΝ Nike
running, holding fillet or wreath
or both; the whole in incuse circle
(Fig. 69). |
|Bull standing, crowned by flying Nike with fillet.||ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΟΣ Similar
In style these tetradrachms are decidedly in advance of the con- temporary coins of most other Sicilian cities. With regard to the mean- ing of the types, it is perhaps preferable to look upon the bull as the river-god Amenanos (who on later coins is represented in human form) rather than, with Eckhel, as the tauriform Dionysos. The figure of Nike on the reverse may be compared with the winged figure of Nike- Terina (see Terina). They are both doubtless agonistic types.
|Head of bald Seilenos with pointed ears.||ΚΑΤΑΝΕ Fulmen with two curled
AR Litra, 13 grs. max.
The form of the fulmen on these coins is unusual.
|ΑΙΤΝΑΙΟΝ Head of bald and bearded Seilenos to the right, with pointed ear, and eye in profile, lower eyelids slightly indicated; he wears a wreath of ivy; beneath, scarabaeus. The whole within a border of dots (Fig. 70).||Zeus Aitnaios seated, right, on a richly
ornamented throne covered with a
lion-skin. He is clad in a ιματιον
which hangs over his left shoulder
and arm, and he holds in his ex-
tended left hand a winged fulmen
similar in form to those on the other
Catanaean coins. His right shoulder
is bare and his right arm, slightly
raised, rests on a knotted vine-staff
bent into a crook at the top. In the
field in front of the figure is an eagle
with closed wings perched on the top
of a pine-tree. |
AR Tetradr., 266 grs.
This unique coin, now in the Brussels Cabinet (bequest of the Baron de Hirsch), is in many ways highly instructive as showing the point of development which art had attained in Sicily between B.C. 476 and 461. The scarabaei of Aetna were remarkable for their enormous size (cf. Schol. Ar. Pac., 73), hence the scarab as a symbol on the obverse.
As Mount Aetna was also famous for its prolific vines (cf. Strab., p. 269), Zeus Αιτναιος, under whose special protection the city of Aetna was placed, is appropriately shown as resting on a vine-staff. The pine-tree is also a local symbol no less characteristic than the vine-staff, for the slopes of Mount Aetna were at one time richly clad with pine and fir trees, την Αιτνην ορος γεμον κατ’ εκεινους τους χρονους πολυτελους ελατης τε και πευκης (Diod. xiv. 42). Cf. Pindar, Pyth. i. 53. For a full account of this coin see Num. Chron., 1883, p. 171.
|Similar head of Seilenos, sometimes with ivy-wreath, as on the tetra- drachm, sometimes laureate, and sometimes bare.||ΑΙΤΝΑΙ Winged fulmen, as on tetra-
drachm: the whole in incuse circle.
AR Litra or Obol.
The Aetnaeans, expelled B.C. 461, retired to a neighbouring stronghold called Inessa, to which they transferred the name of Aetna. For the coins struck at this new Aetna, see p. 119.
|Head of Apollo laur., hair usually gathered up behind and tucked under the string of his wreath.||Quadriga of walking horses; above, on
the later specimens, a flying Nike.
AR Tetradrachm.[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XVI. 20.]
|Young male head with short hair laureate, but not resembling Apollo. Perhaps he is the river-god Ame- nanos, although without the horn.||Id. (Fig. 71). |
Catana was for a time the head-quarters of the Athenians during their expedition against Syracuse. The finest coins date from this time until the capture of the city by Dionysius in B.C. 404, when, according to his frequent practice, he sold the population into slavery and gave up the city to his Campanian mercenaries.
For a gold coin of this period, which may belong to Catana, see Camarina.
The tetradrachms of this period always have the inscr. ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ. The heads of Amenanos (?) in profile resemble those of the previous period, but belong to a more advanced stage of art (Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. A. 17).
The horses of the chariot on the reverse are in rapid action. On one beautiful specimen, signed on the reverse by the Syracusan engraver Euainetos, the chariot is seen wheeling round the goal. Aquatic symbols, such as a crab or a crayfish, are often added on one or other side of the coin. One piece is signed by an artist named ΠΡΟΚΛΗΣ. who worked also for the Naxian mint (Weil, Winckcelmanns-Programm, 1884, Pl. II. 12). The following are the most important silver coins of this time:—
|Head of Apollo laur. facing, between a bow and a lyre. Beneath, ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ; artist’s name, ΧΟΙΡΙΩΝ. [Holm, Pl. VI. 4=Mac- donald, Hunter Catal. I. p. 172. 12.]||ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ Fast quadriga; in the
background an Ionic column (the
meta). In ex., crayfish.
Of this coin a variety (without bow and lyre), signed by the engraver Herakleidas, shows a laureate head facing with loose hair (Fig. 72). On some specimens the Nike holding wreath and caduceus is descending through the air in an upright posture towards the charioteer.
Some of the heads on the Catanaean tetradrachms are bound with a plain taenia in place of the laurel-wreath; all such (and apparently some also which are laureate) are heads of the river Amenanos, although he is without the characteristic horn of the river-god. On the following small denominations Amenanos is represented as a horned youth:—
|Young head of Amenanos horned, with lank loose hair, three-quarter face. Around, two river-fishes. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. IX. 5.]||Fast quadriga. |
|ΑΜΕΝΑΝΟΣ Similar head in pro- file, horned, and bound with taenia. Beneath, artist’s signature, ΕΥΑΙ or ΧΟΙΡΙΩΝ; around, crayfish and two river-fishes.||Similar. |
|ΑΜΕΝΑ[νος] Full-face head of Ame- nanos horned, with wavy flowing hair. Artist’s signature, ΧΟΙ.||Quadriga driven by female charioteer.
Beneath, Maeander-pattern. Artist's
name ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΑ. |
|Head of bald and bearded Seilenos facing. [Holm, Pl. VI. 7.]||Head of Amenanos wearing taenia.
|Id.||Head of Apollo laur. |
|Head of bald Seilenos in profile, some- times with ivy-wreath.||Fulmen, usually with two wings. In
field, two disks.
AR Litra and smaller coins.
|Head of nymph wearing sphendone.||Rushing bull. |
AR Obol or Litra.
About B.C. 404 is to be dated an alliance coin of Catana and Leontini.
|ΛΕ ΟΝ Head of Apollo. [Num. Chr., 1896, Pl. IX. 7 and Pl. X.]||ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ Rushing bull; in exer-
gue, fish. |
There are not many bronze coins of Catana which can be attributed to the best period of art. The following may, however, be mentioned :—
|ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ Head of Persephone, as on dekadrachms of Syracuse; around, dolphins.||Man-headed bull walking. |
|ΚΑΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ Head of Persephone with long hair.||Fulmen as above. |
|ΑΜΕΝΑΝΟΣ Young horned head of river-god.||ΚΑ fulmen with spread wings.
Of the subsequent history of Catana we possess very slight informa- tion. We know that the city continued to exist, but it does not seem to have struck any coins for more than a century. During the First Punic War it submitted to Rome, and under the Roman rule it attained great prosperity.
The bronze coins of Catana, which belong chiefly to the end of the third and to the second century, are very numerous.
|Head of Athena.||Fulmen. |
|Reclining river-god.||Helmets of the Dioskuri. |
|Head of Seilenos.||Grapes. |
|Heads of Sarapis and Isis.||Two ears of corn. |
With marks of value.
|Litra. Head of Poseidon.||Dolphin. Mk. of value XII. |
|Dekonkion. Heads of Sarapis and Isis.||Apollo standing „ „ X. |
|Pentonkion. Head of Apollo.||Isis standing,
holds bird „ „ Π. |
|Hexas. Id.||Id. II. |
|ΛΑΣΙΟ Head of young Dionysos.||The Catanaean brothers carrying their
parents. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 16.].
Λασιος is probably a local name of Dionysos. The meaning of the word, ‘hairy,’ is appropriate to the god whose characteristic garment was the hairy fawn-skin, νεβρις.
|One of the Catanaean brothers carry- ing his father.||The other brother carrying his mother.
These types allude to a popular tale that once during a fearful eruption of Aetna in the fifth century, when a stream of lava was descending upon Catana, and when every man was eagerly bent upon saving his treasures, the brothers Amphinomos and Anapias bore off on their shoulders their aged parents, but the lava overtook them, heavily laden as they were, and their doom seemed inevitable, when the fiery stream miraculously parted and let them pass scatheless. Ever after
|Head of young Dionysos.||Dionysos in car drawn by panthers.
|Head of Hermes.||Nike with wreath and palm. |
|Head of Zeus Ammon.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 14.]
|Aequitas with scales and cornucopiae.
|Head of Sarapis.||Isis standing with sceptre and sistrum;
beside her, Harpokrates. |
|Janiform head of Sarapis wearing modius. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 12.]||Demeter standing with torch and ears
The coins with marks of value in Roman numerals are clearly con- temporary with those of Rhegium with similar marks (p. 112). They usually bear in addition very elaborate monograms. There is no evi- dence that the money of Catana was continued after the end of the second or the beginning of the first century B.C.
Centuripae (Centorbi) was a city of the Sikels of some importance as a strong place. No coins are known of it before the middle of the fourth century, when, in common with many other Sicilian towns, it was liberated from tyrannical rule by Timoleon (B.C. 339). It then restruck with its own types the large bronze coins of Syracuse (obv. Head of Athena, rev. Star-fish between dolphins):—
|Head of Persephone as on Syracusan dekadrachms.||ΚΕΝΤΟΡΙΡΙΝΩΝ Leopard. |
Between this time and that of the First Punic War, when it submitted to Rome, no coins are known.
|Dekonkion. Head of Zeus; in field, eagle. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 21.]||Winged fulmen Δ. |
|Hemilitron. Head of Apollo.||Lyre. ::: |
|Trias. Head of Artemis.||Tripod. |
|Hexas. Head of Demeter. [Hill, Ibid., Pl. XIV. 20.]||Plough, on which bird. |
|Uncertain. Head of Herakles.||Club ΧΙ. |
|„ Head of Apollo.||Laurel-bough. |
|„ „ „||Tree.
In style these coins are very uniform, and they seem to be all of the third century B.C. For the correspondence between obv. and rev. types see Macdonald, Coin Types, p. 120. The territory of Centuripae was very productive of corn, and the inhabitants were farmers on a large scale, ‘arant enim tota Sicilia fere Centuripini’ (Cic. II Verr. iii. 45).
Cephaloedium (Cefalù), on the north side of the island, stood, as its name implies, on a headland jutting out into the sea. In early times it formed part of the territory of Himera, and in B.C. 409 it fell into the hands of the Carthaginians. The mint known as Rash Melkarth (‘Promontory of Herakles’) is probably to be identified with this place, rather than with Heraclea Minoa (see Holm, No. 398). Cephaloedium was recovered by Dionysius in B.C. 396. To the period of Carthaginian occupation belong the following coins:—
|Head of Persephone; around, dolphins
(copied from coins by Euainetos).
[Holm, Pl. VIII. 9.]
|Punic inscr. דש מלקדח Victorious quad-
|Female head; around, dolphins.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. X. 1.]
|Bearded male head, laureate (Melkarth).
[Ibid., Pl. IX. 16.]
| „ |
On some specimens the inscription is דאש מלקדח. The work is at first very good, but rapidly degenerates. Coins were issued during this period by the exiled inhabitants of Cephaloedium, but at what place we cannot say :—
|ΕΚ ΚΕΦΑΛΟΙΔΙΟΥ Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΩΤΑΝ Rushing bull.
[Holm, Pl. VI. 10.]. |
AR 24-23 grs.
AR 12.5 grs.
|Similar head; inscr. off the flan.||ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΩ... Id.
The next coins of Cephaloedium belong to the period after its capture by the Romans in B.C. 254.
|ΚΕΦΑΛΟΙΔΙΟΥ Head of young Herakles.||Pegasos. |
|Head of bearded Herakles, laur.||ΚΕΦΑ Herakles standing to front.
|Id.|| „ Club, bow, quiver, and lion-skin.
|Head of bearded Herakles bound with taenia. [Tropea, p. 15, Nos. 5-6.]|| „ Helmet, cuirass, greaves, shield,
club, and quiver. |
|Head of Apollo, laur. [Tropea, No. 18.]|| „ Apollo with phiale and lyre.
|Head of Hermes.|| „ Caduceus. |
|C. CANINIVS II VIR Young male head.|| „ Herakles holding club and apple.
|C. L. DOMINVS Head of Herakles, laur. [Tropea, p. 17, No. 28.]|| „ Herakles holding lion-skin.
Enna (Castrogiovanni), in the centre of Sicily, stood on a fertile plateau, about three miles in extent, on the lofty summit of a mountain defended on all sides by steep cliffs. It was held to be one of the most sacred places in Sicily, being the chief seat of the cultus of Demeter, and the scene of the rape of Persephone. Its earliest coins are litrae of the period of early transitional art.
|Quadriga driven by Demeter holding torch.||ΗΕΝΝΑΙΟΝ Demeter with lighted
torch sacrificing at altar
AR Obol or Litra.
The bronze coins of Enna are of two distinct periods.
|ΔΑΜΑΤΗΡ Head of Demeter.||ΕΝΝΑ (in ex.) Goat standing in front
of torch between two ears of corn.
|ΔΑΜΑΤ Head of Demeter wearing corn-wreath.||ΕΝΝ Head of sacrificial ox with fil-
leted horns. |
|Id.||ΕΝ Two corn-grains.
|ΕΝΝΑΙΩΝ Demeter standing, holding torch and figure of Nike (?).||Grapes in wreath. |
|ΕΝΝΑΙΩΝ Triptolemos standing, holding sceptre.||Plough drawn by winged serpents.
|ΕΝΝΑΙΩΝ Head of Hermes.||Figure seated(?) before tree.
These statues of Demeter and Triptolemos, the former holding in her hand a Nike, are mentioned by Cicero (II Verr. iv. 49). The coins of Enna as a Roman Municipium, reading MVN. HENNAE, are the latest which we possess of the town. They bear the names of M. CESTIVS and L. MVNATIVS II VIR[I], and among the remarkable reverse-types are Hades in quadriga carrying off Persephone, and Trip- tolemos standing holding ears of corn.
Entella (Rocca d'Entella), originally an Elymian town, stood on a lofty summit in the interior of the island on the river Hypsas. Its earliest coins are of silver :—
|Female figure sacrificing.||ΕΝΤΕΑ (retrogr.) Man-headed bull
(River Hypsas). |
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||ΕΝΤ ::: |
In B.C. 404 the Campanian mercenaries who had been in the service of the Carthaginians seized upon Entella, which they held for many years. The following coins were struck under their occupation, but not until the time of Timoleon. (Head, Syracuse, p. 36 note.) For other coins struck by the Campanians in Sicily see Aetna, Campani, Nacona, and Tyrrheni.
|ΚΑΜΠΑΝΩΝ Close fitting helmet.
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 17.]
|ΕΝΤΕΛΛΑS Free horse. |
AR ½ drachm
|ΕΝΤΕΛ Head of Demeter in corn- wreath.||ΚΑΜΠΑΝΩΝ Pegasos. |
|ΕΝΤΕΛΛ Head of bearded Ares in Close fitting helmet, laur.||Κ Pegasos or free horse. |
|ΕΝΤΕΛΛ.. Close fitting helmet.||ΚΑΜΡΑΝΩ Id. |
|ΑΤΡΑΤΙΝΟΥ Head of Helios.||ΕΝΤΕΛΛΙΝWΝ City-goddess with
phiale and cornucopiae. |
|„ Head of Demeter; be- hind, triskeles.||ΕΝΤΕΛΛΙΝWΝ Grapes.
The name of L. Sempronius Atratinus, who commanded in Sicily in the time of M. Antonius, also occurs on coins of Lilybaeum.
Eryx (Mte. S. Giuliano) stood on the summit of an isolated mountain at the north-west extremity of Sicily. Here was the far-famed temple of Aphrodite Erycina of Phoenician origin. In the archaic period Eryx would seem from its coin-types to have been for a time dependent upon Agrigentum, probably, like Himera, in the time of Theron.
|ΕRVΚΙΝΟΝ (retrog.) Eagle, sometimes on capital of column. [Hill, Pl. II. 2.]||Crab (on the litrae, sometimes ΛΙ).
AR Drachms and Litrae.
In the transitional period the town appears to have been in close rela- tions with the neighbouring city of Segesta, for the reverse-type, the dog, is common to the coins of both towns. Cf. also the unexplained termina- tion ΖIB which occurs on coins of this city as well as at Segesta and on an alliance coin between the two cities (see Segesta).
|Head of Aphrodite facing.||ΕRVΚΙΝΟΝ (retrog.) Dog. |
|Head of Aphrodite r., in sphendone.||ΙRVΚΑΖΙ[Β] Dog and three stalks of
|ΕΡΥΚΙΝΟΝ or ΙRVΚΑΖΙΒ Female figure sacrificing.||Dog. |
|Forepart of dog. [N. C., 1896, Pl. I. 11.]||ΕΡΥ or ΕΡVΚ retrograde, around Η.
AR ½ litra.
Inscr. on obv. or rev. usually ΕΡΥΚΙΝΟΝ.
|Victorious quadriga, horses in rapid action.||Aphrodite seated, holding dove; Before
her, Eros. [Gardner, Types, Pl. VI.
|Aphrodite seated holding dove : before her, Eros. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. IX. 11.]||ΙRVΚΑΖΙΙΒ (retr.). Dog and three
stalks of corn. |
|Aphrodite seated before tree, holding dove.||Dog; above, swastika. |
AR Litra or Obol.
|Aphrodite seated, crowned by flying Eros.||Dog. „ „|
|Aphrodite seated, drawing towards her a naked youth (wingless Eros).||Dog on prostrate hare.
AR Litra or Obol.
|Head of Aphrodite r., in sphendone.||Dog. |
AR ½ Lit. or ½ Ob.
During the greater part of the fourth century Eryx was in the hands of the Carthaginians, and it is to this period that the coins with the Punic inscr. ארך belong.
|Head of Aphrodite l. [Holm, Pl. VIII. 7.]||Punic inscr. Man-headed bull standing
|Head of Athena.|| „ Pegasos. |
The last type is due to the influence of the Corinthian coinage in Dion’s or Timoleon’s time.
There are also bronze coins which belong to the middle of the fourth century.
|ΕΡΥΚΙΝΩΝ Head of Zeus Eleuthe- rios.||Aphrodite seated, holding dove. |
Æ 1.25(Restruck on large Æ of Syracuse.)
|Trias. Bearded head.||Dog. ••• |
|Hexas. Id.||Id. •• |
|Uncia. Id.||Id. |
|Trias. ΕΡΥΚΙΝΟΝ Head of Aphro- dite.||Dog. ••• |
|Hexas. ΗΕΖΑΣ (retr.) Head of Aphrodite. [Num. Zt., 18, Pl. VI. 4.]||Dog. •• |
|Uncia. Head of Aphrodite.||Dog. ΟΝΚΙΑ. |
The bearded head may be intended for that of the eponymous hero Eryx.
|Head of Aphrodite.||ΕΡΥΚΙΝΩΝ Herakles standing.
In Roman times the sanctuary of Aphrodite Erycina was held in great honour, a body of troops being appointed to watch over it, and the principal cities of Sicily being ordered to contribute towards the cost of its maintenance in due splendour.
Galaria (Gagliano ?). An ancient Sikel town about six miles to the
north of Agyrium, founded, according to Stephanus, by Morges, a Sikel
|ΣΟΤΕR (retrog.) Zeus seated holding eagle. [Gardner, Types, Pl. II. 1, 2.]||<ΑΛΑ Dionysos standing, holding
kantharos and vine-branch.
AR Obol or Litra.
|Dionysos standing, holds kantharos and thrysos.] Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 1.]||<ΑΛΑRΙΝΟΝ Vine-branch with
Gela (Terranova). After Syracuse and Agrigentum, Gela was the wealthiest city in Sicily in early times. In the reigns of Hippocrates,
|Quadriga, horses walking, usually with Nike floating above. On some speci- mens the meta or goal, in the form of an Ionic column, is seen behind the horses; on some, the Nike is on rev.||<ΛΑΣ forepart of bearded man-
headed bull, swimming (Fig. 73).
|Naked horseman armed, with helmet, wielding spear; horse prancing.||<ΕΛΑΣ Bull represented entire, swim-
ming r. |
The type of the first of these tetradrachms is agonistic. The appear- ance of the horseman on the coinage shows the importance of cavalry in the Geloan army.
|Similar horseman.||<ΕΛΑΣ Forepart of man-headed bull
|Horseman with spear. [Holm, Pl. I. 16.]||<ΕΛΟΙΟΝ Forepart of man-headed
|Horse with bridle; above, a victor's wreath.||<ΕΛΑΣ Forepart of man-headed bull
|<ΕΛ Forepart of man-headed bull.||Wheel. |
On some of the tetradrachms and litrae the name is written <ΕΛΑ, which is less probably an abbreviation of the river-name <ΕΛΑΣ than the nominative of the city-name.
After the expulsion from Syracuse of the dynasty of Gelon in B.C. 466, the inhabitants of Gela, who had been forcibly removed to Syracuse, returned to their native town, and from this time until its destruction by the Carthaginians in B.C. 405 it enjoyed great prosperity.
|Quadriga of walking horses; above, Nike
or a wreath; in ex. often a floral
scroll, sometimes, a stork flying, or
[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XVI. 22.]
|<ΕΛΑΣ and later ΓΕΛΑΣ Forepart
of man-headed bull; beneath, some-
times an aquatic bird, or fish.
|ΓΕΛΟΙΟΝ (retrog.) Similar.
[Num. Chron., 1883, Pl. IX. 4.]
|ΣΟΣΙΠΟΛΙΣ (retrog.) Female figure
placing a wreath on the head of the
bull Gelas. |
The goddess here called Sosipolis is the guardian divinity or Tyche of the city. She is represented as crowning the river-god. The coins were probably issued on the occasion of some local games.
|Horseman armed with shield and spear.||<ΕΛΑΣ Forepart of man-headed bull
AR Litra or Obol.
|ΓΕΛΑΣ Forepart of bull, Gelas; above, corn-grain.||Armed horseman r.; horse walking.
[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XVI. 23.]
AV wt. 27 grs.
|Similar. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. VIII. 4.]||ΣΩΣΙΠΟΛΙΣ Head of goddess, hair
in sphendone. |
AV wt. 18 grs.
|Forepart of bridled horse.
[Evans, Syr. Med., p. 99, Fig. 7.]
|ΣΩΣΙΠΟΛΙΣ Head of Sosipolis.
AV 13.5 grs.
The period immediately succeeding the defeat of the Athenians is that to which all these small Sicilian gold coins of Syracuse, Gela, and Camarina, weighing usually 27, 18, and 9 grs., undoubtedly belong.
|ΓΕΛΩΙΟΝ Winged Nike driving quadriga of walking horses; in field above, a wreath (Fig. 74).||Head of young river-god Gelas, horned
and bound with taenia. Around,
three river-fishes. |
The presence of the Ω on this and the preceding coins shows that they belong to the last decade before the destruction of the city.
|Armed horseman spearing prostrate foe.
[Holm, Pl. VI. 6.]
|ΓΕΛΑ[Σ] Similar head of Gelas; the
whole within a wreath
This type may commemorate the victory of the Geloan cavalry over Athenian hoplites (Holm, Gesch. Sic., ii. 415), or it may be agonistic.
|Armed horseman striking downwards with spear. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 2.]||ΓΕΛΑΣ Forepart of man-headed bull.
|ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ winged or wingless Nike driving quadriga of galloping horses; above, an eagle flying with a serpent in his claws. In ex., often, ear of corn.||ΓΕΛΑΣ (retrog.) Forepart of man-
headed bull, Gelas. In field, often, a
|Similar, but eagle has no serpent.
[Burlington Club Catal, 1903, No. 140.]
|ΓΕΛΑΣ Man-headed bull standing;
in front, plant; in ex., corn-grain.
Tetradrachms such as the above, with the horses in high action, resemble those struck at Syracuse after the final defeat of the Athenians, signed by the artists Kimon, Euainetos, &c.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin; symbol, astragalos. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. VII. 6.]||ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ Bearded human head of
River Gelas crowned with corn.
|Head of young river-god with loose hair. Behind, corn-grain.||ΓΕΛΑΣ River Gelas as a bull walk-
ing with head lowered. Mark of
value, ••• |
Trias, Æ .65
|ΓΕΛΑΣ Head of young Gelas horned and bound with taenia.||Bull with lowered head. Mark of
value, ••• |
Trias, Æ .75
|Wheel of four spokes, between which, four corn-grains.||ΓΕΛΑΣ Id. ••• |
Trias, Æ .75[Hunter Cat., I. 184, 20.]
|Head of young Gelas with floating hair; symbol, corn-grain.||ΓΕΛΑΣ Bull Gelas as on Trias. Mark
of value, • |
Uncia, Æ .45
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ Bearded human head of
river Gelas crowned with corn.
|ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ Head of Demeter facing, crowned with corn.||Similar head of Gelas. |
The corn-wreath and corn-grain which so often appear in conjunction with the head of the river-god sufficiently indicate that to his beneficent influence the Geloans attributed the extraordinary fertility of their plains. Even now the upper course of the Terranova is rich in woods, vineyards, and corn-fields.
After an interval of more than half a century, during which the prosperity of Gela was at a very low ebb (for it never recovered from the ruin inflicted by the Carthaginians), it was recolonized in B.C. 338, and from this date until the time of Agathocles the town appears to have regained to some extent its ancient prosperity, although it never again struck large silver coins.
|ΓΕΛΑΣ Head of bearded Gelas horned. [Gardner, Types, Pl. VI. 38.]||Free horse.
AR Trihemiobol, wt. 16.2 grs.
|ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ Head of Demeter, hair in sphendone.||ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ Bull on ear of corn.
AR Diobol (?).
The epithet ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ, here applied to the goddess Demeter, may be compared with that of ΥΓΙΕΙΑ on a coin of Metapontum (see above, p. 77).
|Head of Persephone. [Tropea, p. 19, No. 11.]||ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ Forepart of man-headed
AR wt. 8.5 grs.
|Warrior holding a ram, which he is about to sacrifice.||Free horse. |
Subsequently Phintias of Agrigentum, B.C. 287-279, removed the inhabitants of Gela to a new city called after himself, at the mouth of the river Himeras, midway between Gela and Agrigentum. Gela never- theless continued to exist, and struck bronze coins after the time of the Roman conquest.
|Head of young river-god Gelas crowned with reeds.||ΓΕΛΩΙΩΝ Warrior slaughtering ram.
|Head of Demeter crowned with corn.||Ear of corn.
Heraclea Minoa. For the Punic coins usually attributed to this mint see under Cephaloedium.
Herbessus. There were two towns of this name in Sicily, one in the Agrigentine territory, the other a Sikel town of more importance, a little to the west of Syracuse (Pantalica ?). It is to this last that the coins are usually attributed (Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 20).
|ΕΡΒΗΣΣΙΝΩΝ Head of Sikelia.
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. A. 21.]
|The head and neck of a bearded man-
headed bull. |
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. A. 22.]||Eagle with closed wings looking back
at serpent. |
|ΕΡΒΗΣΣΙ... Head of Zeus (Coll. Virzi).||Head of Sikelia. |
|Head of Sikelia (Coll. Virzi).||ΕΡΒΗΣΣΙΝΩΝ Lyre. |
These coins belong to the latter part of the fourth century and are restruck over coins of Syracuse with the head of Zeus Eleutherios (rev. thunderbolt) or Athena (rev. star and dolphins).
Himera (Termini), on the north coast of Sicily, was an ancient Chalcidic colony from Zancle, founded in the middle of the seventh century B.C. Its coinage has been studied by Gabrici, Topogr. e numismatica dell’ antica Imera e di Terme (Riv. Ital., 1894). Of its early history hardly any- thing is known. Its first coins, like those of Zancle and Naxus, follow the Aeginetic(?) standard (see p. 115).
|Cock (Fig. 75).||Flat incuse square containing eight
triangular compartments, of which
four are in relief.
AR Drachm. wt. 90 grs.
AR Obol, wt. 15 grs.
|Cock. [Holm, Pl. I. 5.]||Hen in incuse square. |
These coins occasionally bear the inscr. ΗΙΜΕ, and sometimes the letters , ΤV, or V, which remain unexplained (N. C., 1898, pp. 190 ff.). The cock may be an emblem of a healing god and refer to the properties of the thermal springs near Himera. (Cf. the coins of Selinus, on which the cock as an adjunct symbol probably has a similar signification.) This bird, as the herald of the dawn of day, is thought by Eckhel to contain an allusion to the name of the town, Ιμερα, an old form of ημερα (Plato, Cratyl. 74; Plutarch, De Pyth. Orac. xii), but this is a very doubtful derivation.
Before B.C. 480 Theron of Agrigentum made himself master of Himera, and in that year, with the help of Gelon, gained a great victory over the Carthaginians, who had blockaded him in the town. Theron and his son Thrasydaeus for some years after this exercised undisputed sway over Himera, and reinforced its population with a Doric colony. At the same time the old Chalcidic (Aeginetic ?) coinage was abolished, and money of Attic weight introduced, on which the crab was adopted for the reverse type as a badge of Agrigentine dominion.
|ΗΙΜΕRΑ Cock.||Crab. |
AR Didr. 135 grs.
AR Dr. 65 grs.
|Cock. [Holm, Pl. II. 16.]||ΗΙΜΕRΑΙΟΝ Astragalos
AR Dr. 65 grs.
AR Hexas 1.2 grs.
The astragalos as a religious symbol may refer to the practice pf consulting oracles by the throwing of αστραγαλοι (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iv. 337).
Theron died in B.C. 472, and soon afterwards his son Thrasydaeus was expelled. From this time until B.C. 408, the date of the destruction of the town by the Carthaginians, Himera appears to have enjoyed an interval of uninterrupted prosperity.
|ΙΜΕRΑ (retrog.) Nymph Himera standing facing, wearing chiton and ample peplos. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B, 3.]||ΠΕΛΟΨ Pelops driving chariot, horses
walking; in ex. palm-branch with
bunch of dates. |
|ΙΜΕΡΑΙΟΝ (retrogr.) Victorious quad-
riga of walking horses (Fig. 76).
[Evans, Syr. ‘Medallions', p. 173.]
|Nymph Himera sacrificing at an altar;
behind her is a small Seilenos washing
himself in a stream of water which
falls upon him from a fountain in
the form of a lion’s head; on one
specimen, on the altar, artist’s signa-
ture ΚΙΜΟΝ ?. |
The worship of Kronos at Himera is proved by a coin of the next period; that of Pelops, whom Pindar calls Κρονιος (Ol. iii. 41), falls perhaps into the same cycle. The presence of Pelops on a Himeraean coin might also be explained as referring to the Olympic victory gained by Ergoteles of Himera in B.C. 472 (Pind. Ol. xii), for Pelops was especially revered as the restorer of the Olympic festival.
|ΙΜΕΡΑΙΟΝ Naked horseman riding sideways, about to spring from gal- loping horse. [Gardner, Types, Pl. II. 38.]||ΣΟΤΕΡ (retrogr.) and later ΣΟΤΗΡ
Nymph Himera sacrificing; in field
caduceus and corn-grain. |
On the supposed inscription ΙΑΤΟΝ on these coins see N. C., 1898, pp. 190 ff.
|ΗΙΜΕΡΑΙΟΝ Naked youth riding on a goat and holding a shell, buccinum, which he blows.||ΝΙΚΑ Nike flying, holding aplustre.
AR ½ Dr.
|Monster with bearded human head, goat’s horn, lion’s paw, and curled wing.||ΗΙΜΕΡΑΙΟΝ Naked youth on goat.
|[Κ]ΙΜΑRΟ? (retrogr.) Female head.
[N. Z., 1886, Pl. VI. 7.]
|Forepart of boar; four grains of corn.
|Bearded helmeted head.||ΙΜΕΡΑΙΟΝ Two greaves. |
|Bearded head.||⊟ΙΜΕ Helmet. |
|Quadriga, horses in high action; above, Nike holding a tablet with the artist's name ΜΑΙ...; in ex., hippocamp.||Nymph Himera Sacrificing at altar;
behind her, Seilenos washing at foun-
|ΚΡΟΝΟΣ Bearded head of Kronos bound with taenia. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 4.]||ΙΜΕΡΑΙΩΝ fulmen between two
|ΙΜΕΡΑΙΩΝ Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||Athena standing facing, with shield
and spear. |
AR Obol or Litra.
|Boar. [N. Z., 1886, Pl. VI. 8.]||Female figure pouring water over lion's
Kronos was revered as an ancient king of Sicily at various places in the island, one of which was probably at or near Himera (Diod. iii. 6).
The earlier bronze coins of Himera fall into two distinct series:—
|Hemilitron. Gorgon head.
[Holm, Pl. VII. 8.]
Æ 408 grs.
|Pentonkion. Id.||:·: |
Æ 274 grs.
|Tetras. Id.||:: ΗΙΜΕΡΑ (retrog.) |
Æ 330 grs.
[Gabrici, Pl. VIII. 21.]
|:: Herakles (?) seated. |
Æ 312 grs.
|Trias. Gorgon head.||:. |
Æ 253 grs.
|Nude youth riding on goat, blowing shell.||ΚΙΜΑΡΑ, ΙΜΕΡΑ or ΙΜΕΡΑΙΩΝ Nike flying carrying aplustre.|
|ΙΜΕ Head of nymph Himera with hair in sphendone ••••••||::: in wreath. |
|Head of nymph facing.||ΙΜΕ Crayfish.
Of the above series of bronze coins the first (α), judging from the tetras, yields a litra of 990 grs., while the second (β), judging from the trias, only yields one of about 220 grs. At Agrigentum during the same period the litra appears to fall only from 750 to 613 grs., and there even in the latter half of the fourth century it stands as high as 536 grs.
In the face of such contradictory evidence it is hazardous to draw any conclusions from the weights of the bronze coins as to the various reductions of the litra in Sicily. Cf. also the bronze coins of Panormus.
Thermae Himerenses. In B.C. 408 the old town of Himera was utterly destroyed by the Carthaginians and the inhabitants partly put to the sword and partly driven into exile. The remnant of the popula- tion was, however, permitted to settle within the confines pf the Hime- raean territory, at the hot springs not far from the old city (Cic. II Verr. ii. 35). Here a new city grew up which was called Thermae or Thermae Himeraeae. These thermal fountains were traditionally said to have been opened by the nymphs at Himera and Segesta to refresh the wearied limbs of Herakles on his journey round Sicily (Diod. iv. 23). Cf. the type of Herakles in repose (borrowed probably from Croton).
|ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ Female head in sphen- done; around, dolphins.||Victorious quadriga, horses in high
|Female head in sphendone; around, dolphins. [Hôtel Drouot, Sale Cat., Dec. 1907, Pl. VI. 178.]||Id. ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ; artist’s signature
ΚΛΗ; symbol, altar. |
|ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ Head of Hera in pro- file wearing stephanos adorned with foreparts of griffins.||Herakles naked, seated on rocks over
which is spread his lion-skin. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XXV. 26.]
AR Didr. and obols.
|Head of Hera.||ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ (sometimes on obv.) Head
of Herakles. |
|Head of Artemis; behind, crescent.||ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ Id.
After these coins there is a long interval, for Thermae does not appear to have struck money again until after its capture by the Romans in the course of the First Punic War.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin.||ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ Three nymphs standing,
the middle one (the
City) veiled and tur-
|Id.|| „ or ΘΕΡΜΑ ΙΜΕΡΑΙΑ
Veiled statue of City
and phiale. |
|Veiled female head.||ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ She-goat recumbent.
|Head of City veiled and turreted.||ΘΕΡΜΙΤΑΝ ΙΜΕΡΑΙΩΝ Statue of
Stesichorus leaning on staff and read-
ing book. |
|Head of Hera.||Head of young Herakles.
Cicero (II Verr. ii. 35) mentions among the bronze statues which Scipio restored to Thermae after the destruction of Carthage that of the City of Himera, ‘in muliebrem figuram habitumque formata’; that of the poet Stesichorus, ‘erat enim Stesichori poetae statua senilis incurva, cum libro summo, ut putant, artificio facta; qui fuit Himerae sed et est et fuit tota Graecia summo propter ingenium honore et nomine,’ &c.; and that of a she-goat, ‘etiam quod paene praeterii capella quaedam est ... scite facta et venuste.’ It is interesting to find all these three statues copied on the latest coins of Thermae.
Hipana. Polybius (i. 24) mentions a town of this name not far from Panormus. The following coin was struck there :—
|ΙΠΑΝΑΤΑΝ Eagle on capital of column.||Dolphin and scallop-shell. |
A coin of Motya (q. v.) has very nearly the same types.
Hybla Magna (Paternò). The largest of the three cities in Sicily which bore the name of Hybla (Leake, Num Hell., p. 60) stood on the southern slope of Mt. Aetna, not far from the river Symaethus. No coins are known to have been struck there until the period of the Roman dominion (see also Megara Hyblaea).
|Veiled female head wearing modius; behind, a bee.||ΥΒΛΑΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΑΣ Dionysos(?) in
long robes holding kantharos and
sceptre. A she-panther jumps up to
|ΣΑ Female head wearing stephane.
[N. Z., 1886, p. 253.]
|ΥΒ ΜΕ Caduceus. |
|Head of Athena. [Ibid.]||ΥΒ ΜΕ in monogr. Bee in wreath.
The head on the first coin is that of the goddess Hyblaea (Paus. v. 23).
Iaetia (Iato). A Sikel fortress and town on a precipitous mountain. about fifteen miles south-west of Panormus. Its coins belong to the period of the Roman dominion.
|ΙΑΙΤΙΝΩΝ Head of bearded Hera- kles.||Triskeles, in centre of which Gorgon-
eion; three ears of corn. |
|Bust of Artemis.||ΙΑΙΤΙΝΩΝ Standing figure leaning
on spear surmounted by
|Head in helmet, with crest like a mural crown.|| „ Warrior standing
|Warrior standing.||ΙΑΙΤΙΝΩΝ in wreath. |
|Bearded head.||Id. Herakles or warrior standing.
Leontini (Lentini) was an inland town about twenty miles north-west of Syracuse. It was a Chalcidian colony from Naxus, founded before the close of the eighth century B.C. Unlike the other Chalcidian colonies, Naxus, Zancle, and Himera, it does not appear to have struck money on the Aeginetic standard, its first issues consisting of tetradrachms of Attic weight, none of which can well be earlier than the beginning of the fifth century.
|Victorious quadriga (the horses on the latest specimens galloping).||Lion’s head with open jaws; around,
four corn-grains. |
|Id. In ex. lion running.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. V. 5.]
|Female head with hair turned up and
wearing wreath. |
|Id. (Fig. 77.)||Archaic head of Apollo laur.; beneath,
running lion, and around, three laurel
|Naked horseman. [Holm, Pl. II. 8.]||Lion’s head and four corn-grains
AR Didr. and Dr.
|Lion’s head, usually facing.||Corn-grain. |
AR Diob. and Obol.
|Lion’s head to right.||Corn-grain ::: |
The tetradrachms where the lion (not the lion of Leontini) appears as a symbol in the exergue, show affinities with the Demareteion of Syra- cuse (q.v.). Cf. Holm, p. 582. The coinage of Gelon at Leontini with Nike over the quadriga on the obverse is, in this respect, uniform with the coinage at Gela and Syracuse (q.v.).
After passing successively under the dominion of Gelon and of Hieron, Leontini regained its independence in B.C. 466, and, like the rest of the Sicilian cities, enjoyed an interval of repose and prosperity until B.C. 427, when it became engaged in a struggle with Syracuse, which ended, circ. B.C. 422, in its reduction into a state of dependency on that city. The coins which belong to this period are the following :—
|Head of Apollo, laur.; style progressing from archaic to early fine.||Lion’s head with open jaws; around four
corn-grains, or three only, the fourth
being replaced by a lyre, tripod,
laurel-leaf, river-fish, &c. (Fig. 78).
AR Tetradr. and Dr.
|Lion’s head as above.||Naked river-god, Lissos (?), holding
branch and sacrificing at altar; be-
nind, corn-grain. |
From the above described coin-types it is abundantly evident that Apollo was worshipped at Leontini with special devotion. The lion, his emblem, probably also contains here an allusion to the name of the town. The corn-grains remind us that the Leontine plain was renowned for its
Leontini was revived for a short period between B.C. 405 and 403, when it issued a coin in alliance with Catana (q. v.). In Dion’s time there was a small issue of Corinthian staters similar to those struck at Syracuse at the same period, and also of bronze.
|ΛΕΟΝΤΙΝΟΝ Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.||Pegasos. |
|ΛΕΟΝ Head of Apollo.||Tripod between two corn-grains; be-
tween legs of tripod, a lyre. Mark
of value ••• Trias.
Not until Leontini by the fall of Syracuse came into the hands of the Romans did it again begin to strike money.
|Head of Apollo, quiver at shoulder.||Demeter standing with torch and ears
of corn; plough at her feet. |
|Head of river-god (?) bound with reeds; behind, crab.||Demeter or Isis standing facing. |
|Bust of Demeter facing; in field, plough.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 15.]
|River-god seated on rock, holds branch
and cornucopiae; in field, crab. |
|Head of Demeter veiled; symbol, plough.||Wheat-sheaf. |
|Jugate heads of Apollo and Artemis.||Two ears of corn. |
|Female Dionysiac head ivy-bound.||Warrior facing. |
|Head of Apollo; behind, plough.||Lion, or forepart of lion. |
|Id.||Two fishes. |
|Id.||Sacrificial galerus. |
|Head of Apollo.||Plough with bird on it. |
Lilybaeum (Marsala). This city was founded by the Carthaginians in B.C. 397, a remnant of the inhabitants of Motya which had been destroyed by Dionysius being then settled there. It remained a Carthaginian stronghold until it was taken by the Romans after a ten years’ siege, B.C. 241. All its coins are subsequent to this date, and of bronze.
Inscr. ΛΙΛΥΒΑΙΙΤΑΝ or ΛΙΛΥΒΑΙΙΤΑΙC.
|Head of Apollo.||Tripod (AE .55) or lyre (AE .9).|
|Veiled female head in mural crown within triangular enclosure.||Serpent coiled round tripod. Mag.
ΑΤΡΑΤΙΝΟ ΠΥΘΙΩΝ. |
This head has been thought to represent the Cumaean Sibyl, whose tomb, Solinus states, was one of the ornaments of the city. It is more probably merely the city-goddess. L. Sempronius Atratinus, whose name also occurs on coins of Entella, was a lieutenant of M. Antonius in Sicily during the war against Sextus Pompeius. Lilybaeum also
Longane. Diodorus (xxiv. 6) mentions a fortress, Longon, in the territory of Catana, but the following coin was more probably struck at some town on the river Longanus, mentioned by Polybius (i. 9) as being in the Mylaean plain (Holm, Gesch. Sic., i. 345).
|ΛΟΓΓΑΝΑΙΟΝ (retrogr.) Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||Head of young river-god with short
Megara Hyblaea, a colony from Megara in Greece, was situated on the coast a few miles north of Syracuse. It was destroyed by Gelon in B.C. 483, but its fortress Stiela (q.v.) was revived and issued coins in the fifth century, while in the fourth century Megara itself struck the following coin :—
[Evans, N. C., 1896, Pl. IX. 2.]
|ΜΕΓΑ Man-headed bull. |
Menaenum or Menae (Mineo), about eighteen miles west of Leontini, was an inland town founded by the Sikel chief Ducetius B.C. 459. After its conquest by Dionysius it appears to have been always subject to Syracuse until the Roman conquest, when, like most other Sicilian towns it obtained the right of coining in bronze.
|Head of Sarapis. Ε (or Π on reverse)||Nike driving biga. |
Pentonkion. Æ .75
|Head of Apollo Π||Lyre. |
„ Æ .7
|Id. „||Asklepios. |
„ Æ .7
|Head of Demeter veiled; or head of Athena.||Two torches crossed, ••••, ΙΙΙΙ, or Δ,
Tetras, Æ .7-.65
|ΚΟΡΑΣ Head of Persephone.||Demeter with two torches. |
|Head of bearded Herakles.||Club, ••• |
Trias, Æ .6
|Head of Hermes.||Caduceus, •• |
Hexas, Æ .6
|Head of Janus. [Tropea, p. 26, No. 6.]||Victorious biga. |
Messana, Mamertini, originally Zancle. Zancle, on the straits of Messina, was one of the earliest Chalcidian settlements in Sicily, founded according to Thucydides (vi. 4) from Cumae, and subsequently recolonized from Euboea. Strabo, however, asserts (vi. p. 268) that it was a colony of Naxus. The name is of native origin and signifies a sickle (ζαγκλον); it was given to the locality on account of the configuration of the coast, the port being there enclosed by a sickle-shaped bar of sand (Strab. l. c.; Thucyd. vi. 4).
Like the other Chalcidian colonies, Rhegium, Naxus, and Himera,
Zancle began to coin at an early period on the Aeginetic (?) standard. Its earliest coins differ from all others issued in Sicily in that they bear the same type on obverse and reverse, but in the latter case incuse, thus showing that Zancle was in close commercial relation with the South Italian cities of which this fabric is characteristic.
|DΑΝΚΕ Dolphin within a sickle- shaped band (the port of Zancle).||Same type incuse. [N. C., 1896, Pl.
VIII. 1, 2.]. |
AR Drachm. 88 grs.
|DΑΝΚΕ, DΑΝΚ, &c. Id., sometimes with projections on the band.||Scallop-shell within an incuse key-pat-
tern of peculiar form.|
[J. Ward Catal., No. 302.]
AR 146.3 grs.
|Id. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. IX.]||Id. (Fig. 79). |
AR Drachm 90 grs.
AR Obol 14 grs.
AR Litra 11.5 grs.
[N. C., 1896, p. 112.]
AR 1/8 Obol 2 grs.[Babelon, Tr., ii, Pl. LXXII. 8.]
AR Euboïc didrachm 116 grs.
The coinage of this period presents difficult problems (see C. H. Dodd in J. H. S., xxviii).
Anaxilas of Rhegium, some time after his accession in B.C. 494, caused Zancle to be treacherously seized by a body of Samians and Milesians. He seems to have colonized the place with Samians and Messenians and to have named it Messene. Thucydides (vi. 4) says that he gave it the name on the expulsion of the Samians; but the following coins with Samian types show that the name was in use during the Samian occupation. Similar types occur at Rhegium, but these probably belong to the earlier part of the reign of Anaxilas.
|Lion’s head facing (Fig. 80).||ΜΕSSΕΝΙΟΝ Calf’s head to l.
AR Attic Tetradr.
|Id.||ΜΕS in incuse circle. |
AR wt. 14 grs.
Another coin of which the type is still more distinctly Samian was found some thirty years ago in a hoard near Messina. There were several examples of it, together with others of Rhegium and Messana, of the lion’s head and calf’s head type (Zeit. f. Num., iii. p. 135). Another specimen was found in Egypt. They are uninscribed, and it is highly probable that they were struck at Samos for the use of the Samian emigrants.
|Round shield, on which a lion’s scalp, facing. [Dodd, op. cit., Nos. C. 1,2.].||Prow of Samian galley (samaena).
AR Attic Tetradr.
Anaxilas subsequently introduced at Messene, as at Rhegium, the types of the mule-car and the hare (see above, p. 108). The inscription ΜΕSSΕΝΙΟΝ was eventually changed to ΜΕSSΑΝΙΟΝ, and this change from the Ionic to the Doric form probably coincided with the expulsion of the Samian element in the population, which took place some time before the death of Anaxilas in B.C. 476. The chariot-type remained un- changed until the expulsion of the tyrants in B.C. 461. The type of the hare, whatever its origin (see Rhegium, p. 109 supra), was early associated by the Messanians with the worship of their god Pan, and was therefore not discarded.
|Biga of mules, απηνη, driven by a bearded charioteer. Above, some- times, Nike crowning driver or mules. In ex., laurel-leaf.||ΜΕSSΕΝΙΟΝ, and later ΜΕS-
SΑΝΙΟΝ. Hare running. Letters
in field: Α, Β. Symbols: olive-branch,
bucranium, &c. |
|Id. [J. H. S., 1897, Pl. II. 7.]||ΜΕSSΕΝΙΟΝ Hare. |
|Id.||Id. Id. in wreath. |
|Hare.||ΜΕS (retrogr.), sometimes in wreath.
AR Litra (?).
To this period belongs, if genuine, the gold coin (wt. 22.6 grs.) with the same types as the tetradrachm, and inscr. ΜΕSSΕΝΙΟΝ. (Strozzi Sale Cat., No. 1337.)
After the expulsion of the tyrants, the Messanians continued at first to strike with the old types; but in the course of this period the male charioteer was replaced by the city-goddess Messana.
|Biga of mules, driven at first by male
charioteer, then by female, sometimes
inscr. ΜΕΣΣΑΝΑ; above, Nike; in
ex., usually, two dolphins (Fig. 81).
[N. C., 1896, Pl. VIII. 9.]
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ, ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΣ Hare.
Symbols : dolphin, hippocamp,
cockle-shell, head of Pan (sometimes
with syrinx), stalk of corn with three
ears, head of ΠΕΛΩΡΙΑΣ (with trace
of signature [ΚΙΜ]ΩΝ (?)), dove
(with trace of signature ΑΝΑΝ (?))
|Id. (male charioteer).
[N. C., 1896, Pl. VIII. 4.]
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ ΛΟ Hare. |
|Id. (male charioteer).||ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ Hare. |
|Id. (artist’s signature. [Κ]ΙΜΩΝ)||ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΩΝ Hare. Symbols : dol-
phin and waves, eagle devouring
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΑ Messana in mule-car.
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 5.]
|ΠΑΝ Pan naked, seated on rock covered
with nebris, holding in left lagobolon,
and with right caressing a hare which
jumps up before him. |
|ΠΕΛΩΡΙΑΣ Head of goddess Pelorias, r., wearing corn-wreath.||ΦΕΡΑΙΜΩΝ Pheraemon, naked, with
helmet, shield, and spear, charging.
|Hare. Symbols : ivy-leaf, olive-spray, cockle-shell.||ΜΕΣ in wreath. |
|ΜΕΣ Hare.||Dolphin in wreath. |
|Hare.||ΜΕ in wreath. |
The tetradrachm with ΛΟ probably indicates an alliance between Messana and Locri, the enemy of Rhegium. About the middle of the century the name of Zancle seems to have been temporarily restored, probably with the help of Croton, to judge from a coin struck at the latter city with the inscriptions QΡΟ and DΑ (Hill, Sicily, Pl. IV. 9). The restored Zancleans issued the following remarkable pieces on which the forms D and must be archaisms such as occur frequently on coins and are especially natural here when the Zancleans were restoring the old régime.
|Poseidon (?), wearing chlamys, wield-
ing fulmen; before him, altar.
[Hirsch Coll., Brussels; N. C., 1896, Pl. VIII. 7.]
|DΑΝΚΑΙΟΝ Dolphin and shell.
(Fig. 82.). |
|Dolphin. [Ibid., Pl. VIII. 6.]||DΑΝ. |
The bronze coins corresponding to the ordinary issues of Messana in this period are :—
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΑ, ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΟΝ Head of Messana, hair bound with crossing fillets.||Biga of mules driven by City-goddess.
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΩΝ Hare; in ex. locust.||Cuttle-fish. |
|ΠΕΛΩΡΙΑΣ Head of Pelorias.||ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΩΝ Trident.
In the year B.C. 396 Messana was utterly destroyed by the Cartha- ginians under Himilcon. The above described coins show most clearly that Pan and Poseidon were the two chief divinities at Messana. The long sandy spit called Peloris or Pelorias, with its three lakes of volcanic origin, abounded with both game and fish—‘duplicem piscandi venandique praebent voluptatem’ (Solinus, v. 3)—and was a fitting home for the worship of the two divinities to the cult of which the coins bear witness. The nymph Pelorias is the local heroine. Pheraemon, one of the sons of Aeolos, was the local hero who, with his brother Androkles, ruled over the northern part of Sicily from the straits to the western point (Diod. v. 8).
It was long before Messana recovered from the blow inflicted upon her in B.C. 396. There is no evidence of any further coinage there until after the death of Dionysius of Syracuse, when we find the town in a condition to render assistance to Dion against the younger Dionysius. The following bronze coins range in style from the age of Timoleon to that of Agathocles.
|ΠΟΣΕΙΔΑΝ Head of Poseidon lau- reate, copied from the Syracusan Zeus Eleutherios. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. XII. 14.]||ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΩΝ Trident between dol-
|ΠΕΛΩΡΙΑΣ Head of nymph Pelorias
with flowing hair bound with corn.
[Holm, Pl. VII. 15.]
| „ Naked warrior. Phe-
memon, in fighting
|Id.|| „ Nike in biga. |
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΩΝ Head of young Hera- kles in lion-skin.||Lion advancing with foreleg raised;
above, club. |
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΙΩΝ Head of Messana.||Id. [Tropea, p. 27, No. 10.] |
|ΜΕΣΣΑΝΑ Head of Apollo (?).
[Tropea, p. 27, No. 11.]
|Hare; mark of value •• |
About B.C. 288 the city was seized and all its inhabitants put to the sword by a body of Campanian or Oscan mercenaries, who styled them- selves Mamertini.
The Mamertini derived their name from Mamers, an Oscan form of Mars. Soon after their seizure of Messana they extended their dominion over the greater part of north-eastern Sicily, and were, in a short time, strong enough to maintain their independence against both Pyrrhus and Hieron II of Syracuse. They allied themselves closely with their Cam- panian kinsmen who seized Rhegium in B.C. 271, and they were also fortunate in obtaining the friendly aid of the Romans, with whom they
|ΑΔΡΑΝΟΥ Head of Adranos bearded, in Corinthian helmet. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. XII. 15.]||Dog. |
|ΑΡΕΟΣ Head of young Ares laureate, resembling the head on AV staters of Philip II of Macedon. [Holm, p. 736.]||Nike as on AV staters of Alexander the
|ΑΡΕΟΣ Head of young Ares laureate, with short hair, copied from the Syracusan Zeus Hellanios.||Eagle, wings open on fulmen. |
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|| „ „ |
|ΔΙΟΣ or ΔΙΟΣ ΜΕΣ Head of young Zeus laureate, hair long.|| „ „ |
|ΑΡΕΟΣ Head of young Ares.||Rushing bull. |
|Head of Apollo laur.||Fighting warrior. |
|ΔΙΟΣ Head of Zeus.||Hermes standing with ram. |
|Head of Zeus. [Tropea, p. 2 8, Nos. 9, 10.]||Trident between two dolphins. |
|Female head.||ΜΑΜΕ Warrior naked, standing.
|Head of Apollo.|| „ Omphalos. |
|Head of Artemis.||ΜΑΜΕΡΤΙΝΩΝ or ΜΑΜΕΡΤΙ-
ΝΟΥΜ Omphalos. [Hill, Sicily,
Pl. XII. 20.].
|Hexas. ΑΡΕΟΣ Head of young Ares :||Athena armed. |
|Pentonkion. Head of Zeus.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 19.]
|Warrior fighting. ••••• or Π|
|„ Head of Ares.||Dioskuros beside horse •••• Π|
|„ Head of Apollo.||Warrior standing, or seated. Π|
|Hemilitron. Forepart of bull ••••••||Nike flying, holding aplustre.|
| „ Head of Apollo :::
(Mark of value sometimes on reverse.)
|Nike with wreath and palm.|
|Trias. Head of Apollo.||„ „ ΙΙΙ|
|Uncia (?). „ • (?)||„ „|
|Uncertain. Head of young Herakles
[Hunter Cat., Pl. XV. 3.]
|Artemis running with long torch; stag beside her; in field, ΧΙΙ.|
These coins belong to the same monetary system as that which pre- vailed at Rhegium. Their weights show a steady reduction in the weight of the copper litra.
The occurrence of the head of the god Adranos on Messanian coins
Morgantina was a Sikel town of some importance, which lay in the fertile plain watered by the upper courses of the river Symaethus and its tributaries. Although it is often mentioned by ancient writers, we have no connected account of its history. Its coins may be classified by style in the following periods :—
|Bearded head bound with taenia.||ΜΟR<ΑΝΤΙΝΑ (retrogr.) Ear of corn.
|ΜΟΡΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Head of Artemis.||Naked horseman with spear. |
|„ Head of Athena, facing.||ΜΟΡΓΑ... Nike seated on rocks,
holding wreath; beneath, corn-grain
|„ Head of Hermes, facing.||Similar type. |
The above coins seem to refer, though it is not clear in what sense, to the relations of Morgantina with Gela and Camarina; in the peace of Gela (B.C. 424) Morgantina was ceded to Camarina (Thuc. iv. 65; see Holm, iii. p. 637).
|ΜΟΡΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Head of Athena in richly adorned helmet; behind, owl.||Lion devouring stag’s head; serpent some-
times coiled beneath him. |
|Head of Sikelia bound with myrtle.||ΜΟΡΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Eagle on serpent.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIII. 1.]. |
|ΑΛΚΟS Head of Apollo(?) laureate; behind, sometimes, Phoenician m.||ΜΟΡΓΑΝΤΙΝΩΝ Tripod. [Ibid.,
Pl. XIII. 3.]. |
The type of the eagle on the serpent perhaps refers to the omen seen by Timoleon before the battle on the Crimissus (Plut. Tim. 26).
Alkos is probably the name of the local god (Apollo ?).
Motya (i. e. ‘spinning factory'—Schroeder, Phoen. Sprache, p. 279) was a Phoenician emporium on a small islet (S. Pantaleo) which lay off the west coast of Sicily, about five miles north of the Lilybaean pro- montory. The island was united to the mainland by an artificial mole. Possessing a good harbour, Motya rose to be the chief naval station of
the Carthaginians, and so remained until in B.C. 397 it was attacked by Dionysius, who put all the inhabitants to the sword.
The coins of Motya, like those of the other Carthaginian settlements of Sicily, are imitated from the money of the Greeks, chiefly from the coins of the nearest important town, Segesta, but also from those of Agrigentum, Himera, &c. Sometimes they bear the Punic inscr. המטוא, sometimes the Greek ΜΟΤΥΑΙΟΝ.
|Eagle with closed wings.
[Holm, Pl. VIII. 8.]
|Female head.||Dog gnawing stag’s head. |
|Id.||Dog standing. |
|Id.||Half man-headed bull. |
AR ½ Obol.
|Id. in wreath.||Female figure standing before altar.
[N. Z., 1886, Pl. VII. 5.]. |
|Head of nymph (copied from Kimon's Syracusan dekadrachm).||Crab. |
AR Tetradr.[Evans, Syr. Med., Pl. II. 5, 6.]
|Head of nymph facing; around, dol- phins.||Crab. |
AR Didr. and Obol.
|Id. (without dolphins). [Hill, Sicily, Pl. IX. 14.]||Palm-tree. |
|Trias. Gorgon-head •••||Palm-tree. |
|Uncia (?). Forepart of horse.||Id. |
Coins with Greek inscr. Archaic and Transitional.
|Eagle on capital, serpent in beak.||Dolphin and scallop. |
|Head of nymph, hair tied with cord passing four times round it.||Naked youth riding sideways on gallop-
ing horse. [Holm, Pl. IV. 9.]. |
|Head of nymph.||Dog standing. |
Mytistratus (Marianopoli) was a strongly fortified place in the interior of the island (Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 24). Its coins are of bronze and belong to about the time of Timoleon, being usually struck over Syracusan bronze.
|Head of Hephaestos in conical cap.||VΜ in wreath ::: |
Hemilitron, Æ 1.15
|Id.||ΤVΜ Three objects arranged like
spokes of a wheel. |
|ΜΥΤΙ Id. [Imhoof, Mon. gr. Pl. B. 8.]||Free horse; below, Μ.
Nacona. The site of this town is unknown. Its coins are of bronze, and belong to a good period of art.
|ΝΑΚΟΝ[ΑΙΟ]Ν Head of nymph; hair gathered up behind and bound with cord wound three or four times round it.||Seilenos riding on ass, holds kantharos
and thyrsos, ••• |
Trias, Æ .65
|Id.||Goat, grapes, and ivy-leaf. •
Uncia, Æ .5
In the first half of the fourth century Nacona was held by Campanian mercenaries who had come over to Sicily in B.C. 412, just too late to help the Athenians against Syracuse. These soldiers of fortune, after serving the Carthaginians for a time, subsequently settled at various inland cities, among which, as we learn from the coins, were Nacona, Entella, and Aetna.
|ΚΑΜΠΑΝΩΝ Head of Persephone with wreath of corn.||ΝΑΚ[ΩΝΗ]Σ Pegasos; beneath, hel-
|Id.||ΝΑΚΩΝΑΙΩΝ Free horse; beneath,
A number of coins reading Ν or ΝΑ, or uninscribed, may perhaps have been struck at Nacona (Imhoof, N. Z., 1886, pp. 258 ff.) :—
|Eagle standing on capital.||Dolphin. |
AR 7.7 grs.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||Trident between dolphins. |
|Head of Poseidon.
[Berl. Bl., v. Pl. LIV. 13.]
|Head of Zeus.||Eagle. |
Naxus (Capo di Schiso) was the most ancient Greek settlement in Sicily: it was a colony from Chalcis, founded about B.C. 735, and derived its name, we may suppose, from a preponderating contingent from the island of Naxos. Of the early history of this place little is known, but between B.C. 498 and 476 it passed successively under the dominion of Hippo- crates of Gela and of Gelon and Hieron of Syracuse. In B.C. 476 its inhabitants were transferred to Leontini. In B.C. 461 it seems to have recovered its autonomy, which it retained until its destruction in B.C. 404 by Dionysius.
|Head of Dionysos with pointed beard and ivy-wreath.||ΝΑΧΙΟΝ (retrogr.) Bunch of grapes
(Fig. 83). |
AR Drachm, wt. 90 grs.
AR Obol, wt. 15 grs.
AR Litra, wt. 12 grs.
Some specimens of these early drachms of Aeginetic (?) weight (see p. 115, supra) are of extremely archaic style and seem to belong to a period not later than the middle of the sixth century.
|Head of Dionysos, of early style, with long beard and hair in bunch be- hind bound with ivy-wreath (Fig. 84).||ΝΑΧΙΟΝ Bearded Seilenos of strong
archaic style, naked and ithyphallic,
with pointed ear and long tail, seated
to front on the ground with head in
profile; he holds a kantharos with one
hand and leans on the other.
|Id.|| „ Id. |
|Id.|| „ Bunch of grapes.
AR Litra or Obol.
|Head of Dionysos, of fine style, bearded, bound with broad band adorned with ivy-wreath (Fig. 85).||ΝΑΞΙΟΝ Similar Seilenos, but of softer
and more refined style, seated on the
ground, from which Λ vine springs;
he holds kantharos and thyrsos.
|ΝΑΞΙΩΝ Head of Apollo, laur.; be- hind, laurel-leaf. [Holm, Pl. VI. 8.]||Similar; to r., a term; sometimes with
artist’s signature, ΠΡΟΚΛΗΣ
|ΝΑΞΙΩΝ Head of Maenad ivy- crowned. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. VIII. 17.]||Naked Seilenos seated holding wine-skin,
branch of ivy, and kantharos; in front
a vine grows. |
In the Berlin Museum there is a diobol which in style and type resembles the coin with ΠΡΟΚΑΗΣ, but instead of ΝΑΞΙΩΝ on obv. it reads ΝΕΟΠΟ on rev. (Weil, Künstlerinschr., Pl. II. 13). It is sup- posed by Holm (Gesch. Sic., ii. 432; iii. 627) that these pieces were issued by the Naxians at Mylae, where they found a new home (Diod. xiv. 87), after the destruction of their old town.
|ΑΣΣΙΝΟΣ Young horned head of river-god Assinos. [Hill, Sicily, Pl. VIII. 18.]||ΝΑΞΙΩΝ Similar Seilenos.
AR ½ Drachm.
|ΝΑΞΙΩΝ Young head of river-god Assinos crowned with vine-leaves.||Bunch of grapes. |
AR Litr. or Obol.
|ΝΑΞΙ Head of bearded Dionysos crowned with ivy.||Similar. |
AR Litr. or Obol.
|Young head with short hair, wearing wreath.||ΝΑ Kantharos :. Trias. [N. Z., 1886, Pl. VII. 6.]|
The river here called Assinos is either the Asines of Pliny (iii. 88) and the Akesines of Thucydides (iv. 25), the modern Cantara, or the torrent S. Venera, which is nearer to Naxus.
Neopolis. See Naxus, supra.
Panormus (Palermo) was the most important of all the Phoenician towns in Sicily. Its Greek name, however, is sufficient to show that here, as everywhere else in Sicily, the Greek language was predominant, at least in early times. Before the great repulse of the Carthaginians at Himera, in B.C. 480, no coins whatever were struck at Panormus. No Phoenician people had in those early days adopted the use of money. It was doubtless due to the victory of Gelon at Himera that the Greeks were able to extend their language and civilization even to the Phoe- nician settlements in the western portion of the island. Hence in the Transitional period the coins of Panormus bear for the most part Greek inscriptions.
|ΠΑΝΟΡΜΙΤΙΚΟΝ (retrogr.) Head of Apollo, hair rolled.||Slow quadriga; horses crowned by Nike.
|ΠΑΝΟΡΜΙΤΙΚΟΝ (retrogr.) Head of Nymph.||Dog. [Holm, Pl. IV. 7.] |
|Head of Nymph.||ΠΑΝΟΡΜΟΣ Dog. |
|ΠΑΝΟΡΜΟ[Σ] (retrogr.) Head of young river-god.||Forepart of man-headed bull
A few, however, have the Punic inscr. ציץ (ziz), of which many ex- planations have been offered, none of them thoroughly satisfactory.
|Head of Nymph, hair turned up be- hind under diadem. Inscr. ציץ and ΖΙΒ.||Dog; in field above, head of Nymph.|
[Holm, Pl. VIII. 21.].
The word ΖΙΒ occurs frequently on coins of both Segesta and Eryx. Its juxtaposition on this coin with the equally unexplained Phoenician ziz, looks as if it were a Greek transcript of the same word. On the many
|Poseidon seated on rock with trident and dolphin.||ציץ Naked youth riding on man-headed
AR Litr. or Obol.
|ציץ Similar. [Holm, Pl. VIII. 19.]||ΠΑΝΟΡΜΟΣ Similar. |
AR Litr. or Ob.
|Head of Nymph; around, dolphins.||Poseidon seated. |
AR Litr. or Ob.
The signal successes of the Carthaginian arms in Sicily between B.C. 409 and 405, and the consequent influx of the precious metals from the devastated Greek towns into Panormus, led to the coinage by the latter of money on a far more liberal scale than before. The Greek language now completely disappears, but it is curious to note how from an entire lack of artistic originality the Phoenicians in Sicily were driven to-copy the types of the money of various other towns, e. g. Syracuse, Segesta, Himera, Agrigentum, Camarina, Gela, &c.
|Head, usually of Persephone, copied from coins of Syracuse of the best period of art. Around, dolphins.||Victorious quadriga. |
AR Tetradr.[Holm, Pl. VIII. 15.]
|Head of Nymph with hair in sphen- done. [Holm, Pl. VIII. 14, 20.]||Dog standing. |
|Young male head, and dolphins.||Free horse. |
AR Didr.[Holm, Pl. VIII. 11.]
|Cock.||Crab; below, dolphin. |
AR Drachm.[N. Z., 1886, Pl. VII. 14.]
|Dolphin and scallop; mark of value.||Eagle devouring hare. |
AR Pentonkion.[Holm, Pl. VIII. 12.]
|Head of Athena. [Holm, Pl. VIII. 13.]||Swan over waves. |
AR Litr. or Obol.
|Head of Nymph; hair in sphendone.||Half man-headed bull. |
AR Litr. or Obol.[Holm, Pl. VIII. 17.]
|Head of young river-god.||Similar, or whole bull. |
AR Litr. or Obol.[Holm, Pl. VIII. 16, 18.]
The inscr. on the last described coins sometimes runs שבעל ציץ (=shbaal ziz) ‘of the citizens of Panormus’ (?).
The following bronze coins may be assigned to the latter part of the fifth century :—
|Hemilitron. ציץ Cock.||::: |
|Trias. „ Id. [N. Z., 1886, Pl. VII. 15.]||:. |
|Hexas. „ Id.||•• |
Cf. also an onkia with same obv. type and an uncertain Punic inscr. (Imhoof, N. Z., 1886, p. 248, No. 18). This whole group is assigned by Imhoof to Solus.
The weight of the litra, of which these coins are fractions, can hardly be ascertained. The hemilitron yields a litra of 380 grs., while the trias points to one of 604 grs.
|ציץ Boar running.||Man-headed bull. |
|Head of Hera wearing stephanos.||ציץ Id.; above, sun. |
Æ .95[Holm, Pl. VIII. 22.]
|Head of Apollo laureate.|| „ Pegasos. |
|Female head.||Horse; above, head of Helios. |
|Horse.||Forepart of man-headed bull. |
At Panormus (?), perhaps in common with several of the western cities which joined Timoleon’s league, were probably issued the following drachms which seem to refer to the victory of the Crimissus :—
|ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ Female head crowned with myrtle.||ΚΙΜΙΣΣ (sic) Flaming altar, wreathed
with laurel. |
AR Drachm.[Num. Chr., 1896, Pl. IX. 13.]
In B.C. 254 Panormus was captured by the Romans, under whose rule it retained its municipal freedom, and remained for many years one of the principal cities of the island.
|Bust of Athena.||Head of Persephone. |
|Id.||Female figure standing with phiale and
|Id.||Triskeles with gorgoneion in centre.
|Head of Zeus.||Eagle on fulmen. |
|Ram standing over head of Janus.||Eagle with spread wings. |
|Female head.||Altar. |
|ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ Female head.||Altar. [N. C., 1896, Pl. IX. 14.] |
|Id. Head of Demeter veiled.||Cornucopiae. |
|Hermes seated on rock.||Flaming altar. |
|Head of Persephone.||Poppy-head and ears of corn. |
|Heads of the Dioskuri.||ΠΑΝΟΡΜΙ in wreath. |
|Head of Demeter veiled.||Prow with wing. |
|Head of Aphrodite in stephane.||Dove. |
|Head of Zeus.||Warrior standing; holds phiale. |
|Female head.||Warrior resting on lance. |
|Head of Athena.||Prow. |
Later than the above is a series of coins with, on the reverse, the Latin inscription ΠΟR (for P[an]or[mus]? or Por[tus]?) in monogram. Obv. Heads of Janus (on the as), Zeus (on the semis), or Demeter (on the quadrans). See Bahrfeldt, Die röm.-sicil. Münzen (Geneva, 1904). In the time of Augustus, Panormus received a Roman colony (Strab. vi. 272). Its bronze coins continued to be issued for some time longer, bearing the names of various resident magistrates, e. g. Aqu(illius), M. Aur(elius), Q. B(aebius?), L. (Caecilius) Me(tellus), Cn. Dom.
Paropus (Polyb. i. 24) probably stood at Collesano, south-west of Cephaloedium. It coined in bronze during the period of Roman dominion after the end of the First Punic War.
|Head of Apollo laur.||ΠΑΡΩΠΙΝΩΝ Hunter standing, rest-
ing on spear; beyond him a running
Petra (Petralia), an inland town near the sources of the southern Himeras. It struck bronze money after the end of the First Punic War.
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΠΕΤΡΕΙΝΩΝ Female figure standing
Piacus, mentioned by Steph. Byz. as πολις Σικελιας. The site is quite unknown.
|[Π]ΙΑΚΙΝ Head of young river- god, horned and laureate. Between the letters are the marks of value ••••••||Dog seizing a fawn by the throat.
Æ .7 Hemilitron, wt. 70 grs.[Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 26, Pl. B. 11.]
In style the head on this coin bears a striking resemblance to the laureate head on the tetradrachms of Catana (B. M. C., Sicily, p. 45, No. 25). Piacus may have been situated somewhere in the vicinity of that town.
Segesta (Sestri), west of Panormus, was a non-Hellenic town in the district of Sicily inhabited by the Elymi. It stood near a torrent which empties itself into the river Krimissos. According to a local tradition the city owed its foundation to Egestos, the son of a Trojan maiden Segesta by the river-god Krimissos, who met her in the form of a dog (Serv. ad Aen. i. 550, v. 30).
From the earliest times the Segestans were engaged in continual hostilities with the Selinuntines, doubtless concerning the boundaries of their respective territories. These disputes gave occasion for the Athenian intervention in Sicilian affairs, and subsequently to the great invasion of the Carthaginians, upon whom Segesta became dependent B.C. 409. The silver money of Segesta, notwithstanding the fact that it was not a Greek city, affords but slight indications of barbarism, unless indeed the words ΖΙΒ and ΖΙΑ are to be taken as such, It is on the Attic Standard, and ranges from the archaic period down to the time of the Carthaginian invasion in B.C. 410, when it suddenly ceases. No other Sicilian city minted didrachms so freely. The Segestan
coin-types were copied both at Motya and Eryx on the west and at Panormus on the east of Segesta.
Inscr. SΑΓΕΣΤΑΙΙΒ, ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΙΒΕΜΙ, ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΙΕ, SΕΓΕS- ΤΑΙΙΑ or SΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΙΟΝ, usually retrograde. (For the various theories as to the meaning of the terminations ΖΙΒ, ΖΙΒΕΜΙ, ΖΙΑ, or ΖΙΕ, see the summary in Holm, iii. pp. 599, 600.)
|Dog (river Krimissos), often accompanied by symbols : murex-shell, corn-plant, or corn-grain. [Holm, Pl. II. 14.]||Head of Segesta of archaic style with hair turned up behind under her diadem (Fig. 86). Didr. ½ dr. and Litra.|
|Dog. Symbol: wheel.||Female head facing. |
AR Trihemiobol.[Holm, Pl. II. 13.]
To the same period belongs an alliance coin (litra) with Eryx, obv. Head of Segesta facing, ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΟΝ; rev. Dog, ΕΡVΚΙΝΟΝ (Holm. No. 95 a).
|Dog (river Krimissos); the head of Segesta in field above||ΣΑΓΕΣΤΑΖΙΒ or ΣΕΓΕSΤΑΖΙΒ
Head of Segesta, her hair variously
arranged, in sphendone or otherwise.
|ΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΟΝ Dog standing; in front, a murex-shell.||Head of Segesta, hair in knot behind,
and bound by cord passing four
times round it. The whole in ivy-
|ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΖΙΒ Dog standing, some-
times beside stalk of corn, or devour-
ing head of stag.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. VI. 9.]
|ΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΟΝ [or ΩΝ] Head of
Segesta, hair bound with cord passed
thrice round it, or enclosed in sphen-
done, or rolled up behind.
AR Didr. ½ Dr. and Litra.
|ΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΩΝ Youthful hunter, naked, accompanied by two dogs; his conical cap falls back upon his shoulders; he holds two javelins and stands with one foot resting on rock.||Head of Segesta, hair in sphendone
(from die of didrachm) [Burlington
Fine Arts Club Catal., 1903, Pl. 103.
|ΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΩΝ Youthful hunter, as on preceding. Before him is a terminal figure||ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΖΙΑ or -ΖΙΒ Head of Se-
gesta; hair in sphendone, adorned
with stars. Symbol : ear of corn
(Fig. 87). |
|ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΙΒ Victorious quadriga driven by female figure, probably Segesta, holding ears of corn; above, flying Nike.||Similar to obv. of preceding (one or two
|ΕΓΕΣΣΤΑΙΟΝ Youthful hunter, as on preceding, with one dog. [Holm, Pl. IV. 12.]||Nymph Segesta, crowned by flying Nike,
sacrificing at altar. |
|Head of Segesta, three-quarter face, between two laurel boughs.||ΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΟΝ Dog standing. Symbols :
murex, gorgoneion. |
|ΣΕΓΕΣΤ Horse [? Dog] with head to ground. [Tropea, p. 29, No. 5.]||Nymph seated receiving to her bosom
serpent erect before her. |
|Head of Zeus. [Tropea, p. 30, No. 6.]||ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑ Dog; above, shell. |
|Forepart of dog.||ΣΕΓΕ around a large Η. |
AR ½ Litra.
|Dog’s head.||ΕΓΕΣΤΑ •• |
The young hunter on the beautiful tetradrachms of Segesta is probably the river Krimissos, who, according to Aelian (Var. Hist. ii. 33), was worshipped at Segesta in human form; Αιγεσταιοι δε τον Πορπακα και τον Κριμισον και τον Τελμισσον εν ανδρων ειδει τιμωσι. The dog, his special attribute, serves here to distinguish the figure. On the didrachms the same river is symbolized by the dog.
BRONZE. Before B.C. 409.
|Tetras. Head of Segesta.||Dog. •••• |
|Hexas. Id.||Id. •• (beneath, sometimes, a weasel?)
|„ Id.||Id. |
From the weights of these coins we can form no idea of the real weight of the copper litra, as the tetras of which the weight is 139 grs. yields a litra of 417 grs., while the hexas (wt. 86 grs.) yields one of 516 grs. Cf. B. M. C., Sicily, p. 136.
For more than a century and a half Segesta was a mere dependency of Panormus, and struck no money whatever, unless indeed we suppose that the didrachms with Segestan types and the Punic legend ziz, here described under Panormus, were struck at Segesta.
When, however, after the end of the First Punic War, Segesta had passed under the dominion of the Romans, it obtained once more the right of coinage, though only in bronze. The Segestans now made the most of their traditional Trojan descent, claiming relationship with the Romans on this ground (Cic. II Verr. iv. 33).
|Head of Segesta veiled and turreted.||ΣΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΩΝ Aeneas carrying An-
|Id.|| „ Warrior standing.
|Id.|| „ Warrior beside horse.
|ΕΓΕΣΤΑΙΩΝ Similar.|| „ Id. |
|Head of Herakles. [Holm, No. 611 a.]||ΣΕ Bow and quiver. |
Under Augustus we find Segesta still in the enjoyment of the right of coinage (B. M. C., Sicily, p. 137); but it is probable that there was a considerable interval between the cessation of the autonomous and the commencement of the Imperial series.
Selinus (Σελινοεις, Σελινους), the most western of all the Greek cities of Sicily, stood near the mouth of the river Selinus and a few miles west of that of the Hypsas. It derived its name from the river, which in its turn was called after the σελινον (probably the wild celery, apium gra- reolens), which grew plentifully on its banks. The Selinuntines adopted from the first the leaf of this plant as the badge of their town, συμβολον η παρασημον της πολεως (Plut. Pyth. Orac. xii), placing it upon their coins, and dedicating, on one occasion, a representation of it in gold in the temple of Apollo at Delphi (Plut. l. c.).
|Selinon leaf. [Babelon, Traité, II. Pl. 79. 1.]||Incuse square irregularly divided
|Selinon leaf (Fig. 88).||Incuse square triangularly divided into
eight or more parts. |
|Selinon leaf. [Holm, Pl. I. 4.]||Selinon leaf in incuse square; letters
ΣΕΛΙ sometimes in the corners.
Obols or litrae and smaller coins also occur.
In the great Carthaginian invasion of Sicily in B.C. 480, Selinus appears to have sided with the invaders (Diod. xi. 21). During the period of general prosperity which followed the expulsion of the tyrants, B.C. 466, it rose to considerable power and wealth (Thuc. vi. 20). It must have been quite early in this period of peace that it was attacked by a devastating pestilence or malaria, caused by the stagnant waters in the neighbouring marsh lands (Diog. Laert. viii. 2.70). On that occasion
the citizens had recourse to the arts of Empedocles, then at the height of his fame. The philosopher put a stop to the plague, it would seem, by connecting the channels of two neighbouring streams (Diog. Laert. l. c.). In gratitude for this deliverance the Selinuntines conferred upon him divine honours, and their coin-types still bear witness to the depth and lasting character of the impression which the purification of the district made upon men’s minds. The coins of this period are as follows :—
|ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ Apollo and Artemis standing side by side in slow quad- riga, the former discharging arrows from his bow (Fig. 89).||ΣΕΛΙΝΟΣ The river-god Selinos naked,
with short horns, holding phiale and
lustral branch, sacrificing at an altar
of Apollo (?) the healer, in front of
which is a cock. Behind him on a
pedestal is the figure of a bull, and in
the field above a selinon leaf.
Apollo, who on one specimen (Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 28) appears alone, is here regarded as the healing god, αλεξικακος, who, with his radiant arrows, slays the pestilence as he slew the Python. Artemis stands behind him in her capacity of ειλειθυια or σουδινα, for the plague had fallen heavily on the women too, ωστε και τας γυναικας δυστοκειν (Diog. Laert. l. c.). On the reverse the river-god himself makes formal libation to the healer-god in gratitude for the cleansing of his waters, while the image of the bull, being sometimes man-headed, perhaps represents the river in its former aspect as an untamed natural force.
|ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ Herakles contending
with a wild bull which he seizes by
the horn, and is about to slay with
[Gardner, Types, Pl. II. 16, 17.]
|ΗΥ↓ΑΣ River Hypsas sacrificing before
altar, around which a serpent twines.
He holds branch and phiale. Behind
him a marsh-bird is seen departing.
In field, selinon leaf. |
Here instead of Apollo it is the sun-god Herakles, who is shown struggling with the destructive powers of water symbolized by the bull, while on the reverse the Hypsas takes the place of the Selinos. Perhaps the marsh-bird is retreating, because she can no longer find a congenial home on the banks of the Hypsas now that Empedocles has drained the lands.
|ΕΥΡΥΜΕΔΟ (retrogr.) Head of Nymph Eurymedusa wearing sphendone. Be- hind her, a marsh-bird.||ΣΕΛΙΝΟΣ (retrogr.) Head of young
river-god Selinos with bull’s ear and
horn. Behind, selinon leaf
Eurymedusa appears to have been a fountain-nymph, for one of the daughters of Acheloos was so called (Preller, Gr. Myth., 2nd ed., ii. 392, note 2).
|Nymph or goddess seated on a rock receiving to her bosom an enormous serpent, which stands coiled and erect before her. [Cf. Segesta, p. 166.]||ΣΕΛΙΝΟΣ, ΣΕΛΙΝΟΕΣ, or ΣΕΛΙ-
ΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ Man-headed bull; above,
sometimes, selinon leaf. [Hill, Sicily,
Pl. VI. 6-1. |
AR Litra or Obol.
The obverse of this coin represents a local health-goddess or less probably Persephone visited by Zeus in the form of a serpent (Eckhel, ii. p. 240). The bull on the reverse is presumably the river Selinos.
|ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ Nike driving quad- riga, horses in high action. In exergue, ear of corn, and in field above, a wreath.||ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ River-god sacrificing,
as on the earlier tetradrachms. [Hill,
Sicily, Pl. IX. 8.]. |
The didrachms of this period resemble in type those of the last.
|Head of Herakles bearded or beardless in profile or three-quarter face.||ΣΕΛΙΝΟΝΤΙΟΝ Victorious quadriga,
horses in high action : above, selinon
AR ½ Drachm.
|Head of young river-god.||Selinon leaf :. Trias
Æ .75, wt. 138 grs.
The weight of the Litra according to this coin would be 552 grs.
Selinus was destroyed by the Carthaginians B.C. 409, and although the Selinuntines are from time to time mentioned in later ages, the city was never again in a position to strike its own coins.
Sergentium or Ergetium in the neighbourhood of Mt. Aetna.
|ΜΕΡ Satyr or Dionysos, naked, stand- ing, holding kantharos and vine- branch.||Vine-branch with grapes.
AR Didrachm, wt. 122 grs.
|ΜΕΡ Head of Satyr or bearded Dionysos.||Bunch of grapes. |
AR Diobol 19 grs.
These coins, usually assigned to an unknown city in Bruttium, have been attributed by Pais (Ancient Italy, pp. 117 sqq.) and De Foville (Rev. Num., 1906, pp. 445 sqq.) to Sergentium in Sicily. The low weight of the didrachm, supposing it to be of the Attic Standard, is remarkable. Μ for Σ in the inscr. may be due to the influence of the Chalcidian city of Naxus, for the Dionysiac types are evidently inspired by those of Naxian coins.
Silerae. The site of this town is quite uncertain, nor is its name mentioned by any ancient author. Its rare bronze coins belong to the time of Timoleon.
|ΣΙΛΕΡΑΙΩΝ (retrogr.) Forepart of man-headed bull. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 28, Pl. B. 12.]||ΣΙΛ (retrogr.) Naked warrior charging.
Æ 1.1 and .75
Solus (see Imhoof, N. Z., 1886, pp. 266 ff.) was a Phoenician town of no great importance some twelve miles east of Panormus. Its Punic name seems to have been כפרא (= Kfra, village). Although it was always a dependency of Carthage, some of its coins bear Greek inscriptions and betray the all-pervading influence of Greek religious ideas. The earliest Soluntine coin at present known is a didrachm copied slavishly from one of the coins of Selinus described above.
|Herakles contending with bull.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. VI. 14.]
|ΣΟΛΟΝΤΙΝΙΟΝ River-god sacrificing.
Symbols: selinon-leaf and marsh-bird.
|Cock. [Holm, Pl. VIII. 10.]||כפרא Tunny-fish. |
|ΣΟΛΟΝΤΙΝΟΝ Head of Herakles in lion-skin.||Id. Cray-fish ::: |
Hemilitron Æ .8 wt. 119 grs.
|„ „||Id. Id. :. |
Trias. Æ .7, wt. 70 grs.
|Id. [Tropea, Mus. Mandr., p. 31, No. 1.]||Helmeted warrior. |
For other coins of this period, attributed to Solus, see under Panormus, p. 162.
|Hermes seated; in front, caduceus.||כפרא Bow, quiver, and club. |
|Hermes seated, with ram. Phoen. inscr. כא (?).||Two dolphins and star (?). |
AR wt. 4.6 grs.
|כ-א Youthful male head, helmeted.||Free horse and caduceus. |
|Head of Athena facing.||כפרא Naked archer kneeling. |
|כפרא Head of young Herakles in lion- skin.||Hippocamp. |
|Head of Persephone in corn-wreath.||כפרא Bull. |
The provenance of the following coins shows that they belong to Solus.
|Bearded head (Melkart ?).||Horse. [N. Z., 1886, Pl. VII. 23.]. |
|Id.||Tunny-fish. [Ibid. Pl. VII. 24.]. |
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||Tunny-fish. [Ibid. Pl. VII. 25.].
After the fall of Panormus, Solus passed under the dominion of the Romans. We then hear of it as a municipal town under the name of Soluntum.
|Head of Athena.||CΟΛΟΝΤΙΝWΝ Head of Poseidon.
|Id.|| „ Wreath. |
|Naked warrior.|| „ „ |
|Head of Poseidon.||CΟΛΟΝΤΙΝΩΝ Naked warrior. |
|Id.|| „ Sepia. |
|Id.||Fish (hammer-headed shark ?) |
|CΟΛΟΝΤΙΝWΝ Dolphin.||Tunny-fish. |
|CΟΛΟΝΤΙΝΩΝ Head of Herakles bearded. [Tropea, p. 32, No. 2.]||Warrior with helmet. |
Stiela or Styella (Evans, N. Chr., 1896, pp. 124-6, and Holm, iii. p. 639), described by Steph. Byz. (s. v. Στυελλα) as a fortress of the Sicilian Megara. Leake (Num Hell., p. 70) places it near the mouth of the river Alabon, which flows into the Megarian Gulf.
|ΣΤΙΕΛAΝAΙΟ (retr.) Forepart of man- headed bull. [Avellino, Opuscoli, iii. p. 157.]||Young male figure holding sapling and
sacrificing at altar. |
|Young male head laureate, in front, branch of water-plant (?). [Hill, Sicily, Pl. VI. 11; Evans, N. Chr., 1890, Pl. IX. 1.]||ΣΤΙΑ or ΣΤΑ Forepart of man-headed
AR Drachm and ½ Drachm.
The head on these coins, although not horned, is probably intended for a river-god. In expression it is quite unlike a head of Apollo, and may be compared with certain similar heads on coins of Catana.
Syracuse. The earliest coins of Syracuse probably belong to the time of the landed oligarchy of the Geomori or Gamori. We cannot assign these coins to an earlier date than the latter part of the sixth century, before which time Syracuse must have had recourse, on special occasions when current coins were required, to imported coins, probably Athenian tetradrachms.
|SVΡΑQΟSΙΟΝ Slow quadriga.||Incuse square divided into four parts.
AR Tetradrachm.[Babelon, Traité, ii. No. 2247.]
|SVΡΑQΟSΙΟΝ or SVRΑ. Similar (Fig. 90).||Inc. sq. divided into four parts; in
centre, archaic head of nymph or god-
|SVRΑ Horseman leading a second horse.||Similar. |
These are early examples of coin-types referring to agonistic contests. That they do not, however, allude to any particular victory in the games is evident from the way in which the types are from the first made subservient to the denominations of the coin; thus the quadriga is made use of to indicate a Tetradrachm, while two horses stand for a Didrachm, just as, in the next period, a man riding a single horse is the distinctive type of the Drachm.
The head in the centre of the reverse may be assumed to be that of the presiding goddess of the island of Ortygia, Artemis, who is identified with the water-nymph Arethusa, although on these early specimens the head is not accompanied by the dolphins which on later coins symbolize the salt waves of the harbour surrounding the island of Ortygia in which the fountain of Arethusa gushed forth.
To the reign of Gelon may be attributed the following:—
|Quadriga with Nike above (Fig. 91).||ΣΥRΑQΟΣΙΟΝ or ΣΥRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ
Female head (some-
times in faint linear
circle) surrounded by
|Horseman leading a second horse.|| „ Id. |
AR Didr.[Gardner, Types, Pl. II. 7, 11.]
|Horseman.|| „ Id. (no dolphins).
|Female head.||ΣΥRΑ (sometimes on obv.). Sepia
AR Obol, ½ obol.
The addition of the Nike over the chariot group may possibly have been suggested by Gelon’s success in the Olympian games in B.C. 488. This obverse type is also found in Gelon’s coinage for Gela and Leontini (Num. Chron., 1908, p. 10). In the year B.C. 480 Gelon gained his famous victory over the Carthaginians at Himera, and, by the intervention of his wife Demarete, concluded a peace with his vanquished foes, the conditions of which were so much more favourable than they had been led to expect, that in gratitude they presented Demarete with a hundred talents of gold. From the proceeds of these were struck, circ. B.C. 479, the celebrated Syracusan medallions, or properly speaking Pentekontalitra (or Deka-
|Slow quadriga, the horses crowned by flying Nike. In ex. a lion. (Fig. 92.)||ΣΥRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ Female head (City-god-
dess as Nike ?) crowned with laurel,
in fine linear circle; around, dolphins.
It is not unreasonable to suppose that the issue of these magnificent coins immediately after a great victory, which for the Sicilian Greeks was an event fully as momentous as the contemporary victories over the Persians at Salamis and Plataca were for the people of Greece proper, may have been in some way commemorative of the occasion, and it has consequently been suggested that the lion on the reverse may be a sym- bol of Libya, as it certainly is on some later Carthaginian coins. The type was copied at Leontini (above, p. 148, Fig. 77), where the lion beneath the chariot is to be distinguished from the lion which, as the badge of the city and symbol of Apollo, occurs beneath the head of that god.
Besides the dekadrachm there are a tetradrachm and an obol of this coinage. (Head, Coinage of Syracuse, Pl. I, 11, 12.)
The earlier tetradrachms of this period, belonging (op. cit., p. 10) to the reign of Hieron, differ from the coinage of Gelon’s time not only in their more advanced style, but also in the substitution of a sea-monster or pistrix for the lion in the exergue of the obverse: a symbol which may possibly have alluded originally to Hieron’s victory over the Etruscans at sea in B.C. 474. This is however very doubtful, for the symbol was retained for some time after the fall of the tyranny in B.C. 466 (Fig. 93). The tetradrachms with the pistrix are of a somewhat hard style, which is characteristic of the early transitional period. The hair of the goddess
During the Democracy which succeeded the expulsion of the Gelonian dynasty in B.C. 466, the tetradrachms of Syracuse exhibit a greater freedom of style and variety of treatment than had been previously usual. The form R is replaced early in this period by Ρ. The head of the goddess assumes larger proportions, and the surrounding dolphins are less form- ally arranged and less conspicuous. The hair of the female head is some- times confined in a sphendone, sometimes in a bag (Fig. 94), and sometimes gathered up and bound by a cord passing four times round it (Fig. 95). The olive-branch symbol which occurs in the exergue here and at Gela may be connected with the congress of Gela in B.C. 424. (Headlam, Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 1 ff.)
The later coins of this transitional period, beginning about B.C. 430- 420, show that the art of the Sicilian die-engravers was beginning to attract a wide interest. The designers and engravers, by now for the first time signing their productions, reveal themselves as artists con- scious of the merits of their works, and perhaps as competitors for public recognition. The novel and surprising charm of the new coins of Syracuse soon obtained for the artists orders from, or employment at, the mints of rival cities. Doubtless many coin-types designed by the master but executed by his pupils are unsigned. The artists’ names which occur on the Syracusan coins of this and the following period are :—
Eumēnos or Eumĕnes (ΕΥΜΗΝΟΥ, ΕΥΜΕΝΟΥ) (see Fig. 96) introduces high action in the chariot-group; in ex. sometimes opposed dolphins, dolphin and fish, scallop shell, or signature. Heads of Arethusa and Kora? Also drachms, rev. ΛΕΥΚΑΣΠΙΣ, Naked hero, armed with helmet, shield, and sword, charging r.
Sosion (ΣΩΣΙΩΝ) : style closely resembling that of Eumenos.
Euaenetos (ΕΥΑΙΝΕΤΟ or abbrev.) introduces new motives, such as broken rein in the chariot-group, Nike carrying tablet with artist’s name, chariot-wheel in exergue. (This occurs also on a half-drachm.)
Enth(ymos ?) (ΕΥΘ..) : chariot driven by winged male figure; in ex. Skylla chasing fish.
Dies by Euaenetos and Euth... are found combined with dies by Eumenos. On the other hand, the group by Euth... is combined with a head by
Phrygillos (ΦΡΥΓΙΛΛ..): head of Persephone crowned with corn. This artist is possibly identical with the gem-engraver Phrygillos.
Eukleidas (ΕΥΚΛΕΙΔΑ). Signature on diptych in front of head (combined with obv. by Eumenos, Holm, Pl. V. 4, with ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΣ). Phrygillos and Eukleidas also worked in the next period.
It is in this period that the coinage of bronze begins at Syracuse.
|ΣΥΡΑ Head of nymph.||Sepia, sometimes with :. |
Trias Æ .6-.4
In the period following the defeat of the Athenians great changes are seen in the Sicilian coinage. Gold had perhaps been issued for the first time during the war. The reverse type and incuse square of the earliest gold is a reminiscence of the earliest silver coinage. Before B.C. 400 the form ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ has entirely given place to ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ (but see p. 179).
|ΣΥΡ Head of young Herakles in lion- skin. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. 17. 39.]||ΣΥΡΑ Quadripart. inc. sq. with female
head in centre.
(= 1 AR Tetradr.) AV 18 grs.
|ΣΥΡΑ Head of Athena.
[Holm, Pl. V. 16.]
|Aegis with gorgoneion.
(= 2½ AR drachms). AV 11 grs.
|ΣΥΡ Id. [Head, Syracuse, III. 11.]||ΣΥΡΑ Wheel in centre of inc. sq.
(= 1 AR didrachm). AV 9 grs.
This first issue of gold was quickly followed by another, the designs for which were (at least partly) by the artists Kimon and Euaenetos.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ Female head. Signed ΚΙ, ΕΥΑΙ or ΕΥΑΙΝΕΤΟ. [Evans, Medallions, v. 1-3.]||ΣΥΡΑ Herakles strangling lion (Fig.
(= 2 AR dekadrachms) AV 90 grs.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of young river- god (Anapos ?); sometimes signed Ε. [Evans, op. cit., v. 1-4.]||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Free horse.
(= 1 AR dekadrachm). AV 45 grs.
|ΣΥΡΑ Female head.
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 14.]
|Trident and two dolphins.
(= 25 AR litrae?) AV 20.5 grs.
Throughout these issues, the relation of gold to silver seems to have been 15:1. (On this question, as well as on the later relation of the metals, see Head, Syr., p. 17, &c.; Th. Reinach, L'Hist. par les monn., p. 75 f.; Holm, p. 619, &c.)
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Arethusa with hair in net (inspired by tetradrachm by Euaenetos); around, dolphins. Signed ΚΙΜΩΝ (or abbreviations). (Fig. 98.)||Victorious quadriga; in ex. helmet,
thorax, greaves, and shield, ranged
on steps; below, ΑΘΛΑ. Signature
AR Dekadr. 667.5 grs.
|Head of Persephone (?), crowned with leaves; around, dolphins. [Evans, Syracusan Medallions; Hill, Sicily, Front. 7.]||Similar, but ΑΘΛΑ above the shield.
|Similar, but head less idealized. Some- times signed ΕΥΑΙΝΕΤΟΥ (or abbrev.) (Fig. 99).||Similar to rev. of Kimon’s dekadr.
These magnificent dekadrachms were issued after the Athenian defeat, like the Demareteia after the battle of Himera. The arms in the exergue
may be arms taken from the Athenians and offered as prizes (αθλα) in the Assinarian games which were established to commemorate the event. Euaenetos was possibly absent from Syracuse at the time (see under Camarina and Catana), so that Kimon was employed to make the first dies. The unsigned dekadrachms are thought to have come next, but as only two specimens (from the same dies) are known, these cannot have been issued for any length of time; and it is possible that they may be the latest of all the series. The dekadrachm of Euaenetos seems to have been more generally admired than any other coin in antiquity (as in modern times), except perhaps the tetradrachm by Kimon with the facing head of Arethusa; both obverses were often copied in other mints. Deka- drachms in the style of Euaenetos continued to be issued during the reign of Dionysius I. The issue of tetradrachms during this period was, on the other hand, somewhat restricted. In addition to the tetradrachms reproducing exactly the obverse types of the dekadrachms of Kimon and Euaenetos, there were issued the following of which the first is Kimon's masterpiece, and admittedly the finest representation of the facing human head on any coin.
|ΑΡΕΘΟΣΑ Head of Arethusa facing, dolphins swimming among her loose locks; on the frontlet, ΚΙΜΩΝ.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Victorious quadriga;
in ex. ear of corn (Fig. 100).
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Athena fac- ing, in richly adorned helmet with triple crest, inscribed ΕΥΚΑΕΙΔΑ; around, dolphins.||Persephone with torch, driving vic-
torious quadriga; in exergue, ear of
corn (Fig. 101). |
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟ-SΙΩΝ Head of nymph l., hair in sling; signed ΦΡΥ. [Evans, Medallions, p. 190, Pl. X. 7.]||Similar to preceding; signed. ΕΥΑΡ
Other tetradrachms are signed by ΙΜ (Weil, Pl. III. 12) and ΠΑΡΜΕ (Holm, Pl. V. 15); and among the unsigned tetradrachms are many fine coins, especially one representing Persephone with flowing hair (Holm,
|Head of Athena facing (style of Eu- kleidas).||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Hero (Leukaspis) with
helmet, shield, and spear, fighting;
before him, altar and dead ram.
The half-drachms (one signed by ΙΜ) for the most part repeat the types of the tetradrachm. On the smaller coins the sepia still distin- guishes the litra (one signed by ΦΡΥ), and the wheel the obol.
|ΣΥΡΑ (sometimes with ΦΡΥ) Head of nymph.||Star in quadripart. inc. sq. |
|Head of nymph; sometimes signed ΦΡΥ. [Maddalena Cat., 1903, Nos. 658 f.]||ΣΥΡΑ and two dolphins between spokes
of wheel. |
|Similar head.||Sepia. |
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙ Head of young Pan.
[Num. Chron., 1908, p. 14.]
|Syrinx in wreath. |
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙ. Id.||Trident. |
|ΣΥΡΑ Head of Athena in Corinthian
helmet bound with olive.
[Holm, Pl. VII. 9.]
|Sea-star between two dolphins; some-
times a pellet. |
AR Litra 1.15
Æ Trias .85
|Female head.||ΣΥΡΑ and pellet; dolphin and scallop.
Æ Uncia .7
On the date of these last coins see Holm, p. 621. The litra and trias were extensively used, chiefly by Sikel towns, as blanks on which to strike their own types in the time of Timoleon and later.
To the time of Dion (B.C. 357-353) the following coins of electrum and silver are probably to be assigned :—
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Apollo.||ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ Head of Artemis (Fig. 102).
EL. 112.5 grs. = 100 litr.
|Head of Apollo.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 26. 34.]
EL. 56.2 grs. = 50 litr.
|Id. [Reinach, Pl. I. 9.]|| „ Lyre.
EL. 28.12 grs. = 25 litr.
|Female head (Arethusa).
[Reinach, Pl. I, 10.]
EL. 11.25 grs. = 10 litr.
If these values are correct, electrum was to gold as 12:15; but according to Reinach these coins represent 80, 40, 20, and 8 litr. respectively.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ Head of Athena in crestless Corinthian helmet.||Pegasos. |
AR Stater 130.8 grs.[B. M. C., Corinth, Pl. XXV. 2.]
This is the latest coin with the form ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ, and corresponds to a similar issue at Leontini (Evans, Syr. ‘Med.', p. 158). For other coins of Dion see Zacynthus.
The liberator Timoleon, who landed in Sicily in B.C. 345, replaced the electrum coinage by gold, and definitely established the silver stater of Corinthian weight (which was also an Attic didrachm) as the chief silver coin instead of the Attic tetradrachm.
|ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ Head of Zeus.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 26. 35.]
|ΣΥΡΑΚ Pegasos :.
AV 33.7 grs. = 30 litr.
SILVER COINAGE. Inscr. ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ. [Head, Syr. VI. 7-16.]
|ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ Head of Zeus.
[Holm, Pl. VI. 11.]
AR Stater 132 grs. = 10 litr.
|Head of Athena in crestless Corinthian helmet.||Pegasos (Fig. 103) Stater 135 grs. = 10 litr.|
|Female wreathed head (Arethusa) with dolphins.||Pegasos. [Head, Syr., VI. 8]
AR 40.5 grs. = 3 litr.
|ΕΥ Female head (Kyane ?); symbol, lion’s head mouth of fountain.||Pegasos. [Head, Syr., VI. 10]
AR 40.5 grs. = 3 litr.
|Head of Arethusa with dolphins.||Half Pegasos with star. [Head, Syr.,
VI. 9]. |
AR 20.25 grs.= 1½ litr.
|ΕΥ Head of Kyane (?) with lion’s head symbol.||Half Pegasos. [Head, Syr., VI. 11].
AR 20.25 grs. = 1½ litr.
|Id.||Sepia. [Head, Syr., VI. 12]
AR 13.5 grs. = 1 litr.
|Head of Athena facing, with dolphins.||Horseman. [Head, Syr., VI. 13, 14]
AR 33.75 grs. = 2½ litr.
|Janiform female head, laureate.||Free horse. [Head, Syr., VI. 15]
AR 27.0 grs. = 2 litr.
|Id.||Id. with star. [Head, Syr., VI. 16]
AR 17.0 grs.= 1¼ litr.
The prevalence of the Pegasos as a Syracusan type is of course owing to the influence of Corinth. The head of Zeus Eleutherios and the free horse speak for themselves as emblems of freedom and democracy. The issue of bronze coins of substantial weight (and of some intrinsic value, although doubtless representing a value somewhat greater than
|Bearded helmeted head (Archias ? or Hadranos ?).||Pegasos and dolphin. |
|Head of Kora.||Pegasos Σ. |
|Female head (Aphrodite ?).||Half Pegasos Σ. |
|Head of young river-god facing (An- apos ?).|| „ corn-ear. |
|Head of ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ.||Free horse. |
|Id.||Half Pegasos. |
|Id.||Thunderbolt; usually small eagle in
field (as on coins of Alexander of
|Id.||Shell; around, three dolphins. |
|Id. with thunderbolt.||Swastika. |
|Head of Kyane (?) facing.||Sepia. |
|Head of Apollo.||Pegasos. |
|Head of [ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛ]ΛΑΝΙΟ[Σ].||Barking dog. |
|Head of Apollo.||Dog lying. |
The head of Archias (oekist of Syracuse) would be appropriate at the time of Timoleon’s recolonization. For Anapos and Kyane see Aelian, Var. Hist. 33. The coins resembling those of Alexander of Epirus were. probably struck when he was in Italy (B.C. 332).
The coins struck while Agathocles was ruler of Syracuse do not all bear his name. They fall into three periods, as follows :—
I. B.C. 317-310. Gold. Attic drachms, tetrobols, and diobols. Silver. Tetradrachms, staters (Corinthian), and drachms. Bronze. All reading ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ and without the name of Agathocles.
II. B.C. 310-304. Gold. Stater reading ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ. Silver. Tetradr. „ ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ —ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΙΟΣ. „ ΚΟΡΑΣ—ΑΓΑΘΟΚΑΕΙΟΣ. „ ΚΟΡΑΣ—ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ. Bronze coins „ ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ.
III. B.C. 304-289. Gold. Staters (wt. 90 grs.) reading— ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ.
Bronze coins with same inscr. Silver. Corinthian staters of reduced weight.
|Head of young Apollo or Ares (?) laureate. [B. M. Guide, Pl. 35. 27.]||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Biga. Symbol: Tri-
AR Drachm and Tetrobol.
|Head of Persephone. [Reinach, Pl. I. 15.]|| „ Bull. |
|Head of Persephone (Fig. 104).|| „ Quadriga. Symbol;
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of young Apollo or Ares (?) laur. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 23.]||Triskeles. |
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet. [Head, Syr., VIII. 5, 6.]||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Pegasos. Symbol:
AR Corinthian Stater.
|Head of Persephone.||Bull rushing. Symbols and letters
|Young male head (Apollo or Ares) laur.||Triskeles. |
|Head of Apollo l.||Dog lying; Χ. |
The triskeles may have been adopted by Agathocles in virtue of his claim to sovereignty over all Sicily. The types of the larger gold coins above described were borrowed from the gold staters of Philip of Macedon.
|Young head in elephant’s skin.||ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ Winged Athena armed,
standing; at her feet, owl. |
This coin was probably struck soon after the victory of Agathocles over the Carthaginians in Africa (Diod. xxii. 11), B.C. 310, before which he let fly a number of owls, the favourite birds of Athena, which, perch- ing upon the shields and helmets of the soldiers, revived their fainting spirits. The absence of the royal title proves that it was struck before B.C. 304.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Persephone with flowing hair. [Head, Syr., IX. 1.]||ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΙΟΣ Nike erecting tro-
phy. Symbol: Triskeles. |
|ΚΟΡΑΣ Similar (Fig. 105).||ΑΓΑΘΟΚΑΕΙΟΣ or ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ
Little by little Agathocles seems to have taken into his own hands the right of coinage, for the inscription ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ is first dropped on the gold, next on the silver, and finally, as will be seen, on the bronze. The adjective ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΙΟΣ probably agrees with some such word as χαρακτηρ understood. The monogram which occurs on the silver possibly represents Antandros, the tyrant’s brother. Some of these silver coins are of rude style, and were probably made in Africa.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Young male head (Herakles ?) diademed.||Lion. Symbol: club. |
|ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ Head of Artemis.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Fulmen. |
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet.||Pegasos. |
|Head of Athena as above.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Horseman. |
In B.C. 304 Agathocles assumed the title βασιλευς, following the example set by Antigonus, who had adopted the title, ‘king,’ in B.C. 306.
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet. [B. M. Guide, Pl. 35. 30.]||ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ Winged
AV 90 grs.
|Head of Athena. [Reinach, Pl. II. 16.]||Id. |
AV 65 grs.
|Similar (helmet without crest). [B. M. Guide, Pl. 35. 31.]||Pegasos. Symbol : Triskeles or star.
AR 108 grs.
|ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ Head of Artemis.||ΑΓΑΘΟΚΑΕΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ Fulmen.
The gold staters of this time follow the old Syracusan gold standard. But as gold in the time of Agathocles was worth only about twelve times as much as silver, whereas in the earlier period it had stood at 15:1, the stater of 90 grs. would be equivalent to only 80 silver litrae instead of to 100, as of old. In consequence perhaps of the altered relations of gold and silver, the weight of the Corinthian stater, as issued at Syra- cuse, was proportionately reduced from 10 to 8 litrae.
On the death of Agathocles democratic rule was restored for the space of about a year, during which the name of Zeus Eleutherios again becomes prominent on the coinage.
|ΣΩΤΕΙΡΑ Head of Artemis.||ΔΙΟΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΥ Fulmen. |
|ΔΙΟΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΥ Head of Zeus.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Fulmen.
Of these two coins, the former differs from the last of Agathocles only in the inscription.
Next follows the tyranny of Hicetas, whose name appears on the gold money only. The silver and bronze (which however are attributed by Holm to the time of Agathocles) are without the name of Hicetas.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Persephone. [B. M. Guide, Pl. 35. 32.]||ΕΠΙ ΙΚΕΤΑ Biga. Symbols: moon,
star, [sun], &c. |
AV 67.5 grs.
|Head of Persephone with long hair. Symbols: bee, bucranium, &c. (Fig. 106).||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Quadriga. Symbol :
star, &c. |
AR 202.5 grs.
Of the above coins the gold drachm was worth 60, and the silver coin 15 litrae. The tetradrachm was never struck at Syracuse after the reign of Agathocles.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Persephone with long hair.||Biga. Symbol: star. |
|ΔΙΟΣ ΕΛΛΑΝΙΟΥ Young laureate head of Zeus Hellanios. [Gardner, Types, Pl. XI. 25.]||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Eagle on fulmen; in
field, sometimes star. |
The types of this last coin were adopted by the Mamertines after their seizure of Messana, B.C. 288; the head on the obverse of the Mamertine coin is, however, there called Ares.
The following Syracusan coins probably belong to the time of Pyrrhus's expedition into Sicily (Head, Coinage of Syracuse, p. 58):—
|Head of Persephone, hair long.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Nike in biga.
AV 67.5 grs.
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Similar.||Torch in oak-wreath. |
|„ Head of young Herakles.||Athena in fighting attitude. |
This Athena Promachos is the Macedonian Athena Alkis, a type which first occurs on coins struck by Ptolemy Soter in Egypt for Alexander the son of Roxana, next on silver coins of Pyrrhus struck during his Italian and Sicilian campaigns, and on these bronze Syracusan coins, and again on the coins of Antigonus Gonatas, B.C. 277-239, and on those of Philip V, B.C. 220-179. For the coins with the name of Pyrrhus, see under Epirus.
After the departure of Pyrrhus, one of his young officers named Hieron was elected general of the army. He soon rose to great power in the councils of the republic, and after his victory over the Mamer- tines, assumed the title βασιλευς (B.C. 269).
|ΙΕΡΩΝΟΣ Male laureate head.
[Munich; Reinach, No. 16.]
|Biga; below, trident.
AV 131 grs. = 120 litr.
|Head of Persephone (various symbols).
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 46. 30.]
|ΙΕΡΩΝΟΣ Biga. |
AV 67.5 grs. = 60 litr.
The silver coins which belong to the reign of Hieron may be divided into five classes as follows:—
|Head of Athena.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 46. 32.]
AR Octobol 90 grs.
The weight of this coin is due to the influence of the silver coinage of Pyrrhus. (See also Tauromenium.) The standards of the following classes, on the other hand, seem to be connected with the Ptolemaic system. See Holm, p. 693 f.
|Head of Hieron diademed.||Quadriga driven by Nike (Fig. 107).
AR 432 grs. = 32 litr.
|Head of Gelon, son of Hieron, diademed.||Biga driven by Nike; in field ΒΑ.
AR 108 grs. = 8 litr.
|Id.||Eagle on fulmen; in field ΒΑ.
AR 54 grs. = 4 litr.
|Head of Hieron or Gelon.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΙ, XII.
AR 13.5 grs. = 1 litr.
|Id.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΙ, ΓΕΛΩΝΟΣ, XII.
AR 13.5 grs.= 1 litr.
|Head of Philistis veiled.||Quadriga as above.
AR 243 grs. = 20 litr. (?).
|Id.||Id. (Fig. 108). |
AR 216 grs. = 16 litr.
|Id.||Biga as above. |
AR 67.5 grs. = 5 litr.
The head of Queen Philistis, the wife of Hieron, on these coins should be compared with that of Arsinoë on the contemporary Egyptian coinage. The use of Roman numerals at Syracuse before the capture of the city by the Romans is proved by the litrae reading ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΙ, ΓΕΛΩΝΟΣ, XII. Cf. bronze coins of Rhegium and the Mamertini of the same date, also with Roman numerals. The silver litra marked XII must have been valued at 12 copper litrae, or litrae of account (Head, Syr., p. 74).
|Head of Philistis as Demeter, veiled.||Biga driven by Nike.
AV 67.5 grs. = 60 litr.
|Id. [B. M. Guide, Pl. 46. 34.]||Quadriga driven by Nike. |
AR 108, 54, and 27 grs. = 8, 4, and 2 litrae.
On all the coins of this class there is an unexplained monogram . On the conclusion of the First Punic War, B.C. 241, when Sicily was divided between the Romans and Hieron, the coins with this inscription were probably struck for circulation throughout the dominions of the latter.
|Head of Hieron, diademed.||Biga. |
|Id. (or laureate).||Armed horseman. |
|Head of Poseidon.||Trident with dolphins. |
|Head of Persephone.||Pegasos. |
|Head of nymph.||Id. |
|Head of Apollo.||Free horse. |
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Head of Persephone.||ΙΕ Bull; above, club. |
Hieron was succeeded by his grandson Hieronymus in B.C. 216. The following are the coins which were struck during his short reign:—
|Head of Persephone.
[Paris; Reinach, No. 19.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΙΕΡΩΝΥΜΟΥ Fulmen.
AV 65 grs. = 60 litr.
|Id.|| „ „ Fulmen.
AV 33.75 grs. = 30 litr.
|Head of Hieronymus diademed (Fig. 109).|| „ „ Fulmen. |
AR 324 grs.135 grs., 81 grs. [Holm, Pl. VI. 18] & 67.5 grs. = 24, 10, 6, & 5 litr.
After the assassination of Hieronymus, a Democracy was once more proclaimed. The following coins belong to this latest period of Syra- cusan autonomy, which ended with the fall of the city before the Roman arms:—
|Female head l. wearing stephanos
adorned with floral ornaments.
[Paris; Holm, Pl. VII. 5.]
|ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Quadriga (double-
AV 67.5 grs. = 60 litrae.
|Head of Athena.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ Artemis huntress with
AR 162 grs. = 12 litr.
|Id.|| „ Fulmen. |
AR 108 grs. = 8 litr.
|Head of Zeus (Fig. 110).|| „ Quadriga driven by Nike
AR 216 grs. = 16 litr.
|Head of Persephone.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 47. 39.]
| „ Id. |
AR 108 grs. = 8 litr.
|Head of bearded Herakles.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 47. 38.]
| „ Biga driven by Nike.
AR 81 grs. = 6 litr.
|Head of Apollo.|| „ Nike carrying trophy
AR 54 grs. = 4 litr.
|Head of Persephone.|| „ Zeus resting on spear.
AR 135 grs. = 10 litr.
|Head of Apollo.|| „ Tyche(?) with inflated veil,
scroll and branch
AR 33.75 grs. = 2½ litr.
|Head of Artemis.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΙ Owl facing.
AR 16.87 grs.= 1¼ litr.
|Head of Athena.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΙ :· ΧΙΙΙ.
AR 13.5 grs. = 1 litr.
|Head of Herakles.
[Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 33.]
AR 7.4 grs. = ½ litr. (?).
The figure of Zeus resting on a spear has been shown by G. Abeken (Annali dell’ Inst., 1839, p. 62) to represent the statue of Zeus Strategos
(Ουριος) or Jupiter Imperator mentioned by Cicero (II Verr. iv. 58). On forgeries of gold with the figure of Artemis, see Imhoof, Corolla Num., p. 160.
The Roman numerals :· XIII are to be understood as 13¼ (? 13 1/3) copper litrae. This indicates a further depreciation in the nominal value of the unit of account (Mommsen-Blacas, i. p. 116; Head, l. c. But see also Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 33). The bronze issues between the death of Hieronymus and the capture of the city were the following :—
|Head of Poseidon.||ΣΥΡΑΚΟSΙΩΝ Trident between dol-
|Head of Apollo.|| „ The Dioskuri. |
|Id.|| „ Tripod. |
|Female head diademed.|| „ „
Syracuse, in common with most other Sicilian towns, was allowed by the Romans to strike bronze money for a long time after her capture. Many of the following coin-types are very late, especially those which are derived from the worship of Isis.
|Head of Zeus.||Simulacrum of Isis in quadriga; she
holds torch. |
|Id.||City, wearing mural crown, standing;
holds rudder and sceptre. |
|Id.||Nike in biga. |
|Id.||Eagle on fulmen. |
|Head of Artemis.||Nike carrying palm. |
|Head of Athena.||Nike sacrificing bull. |
|Head of Sarapis.||Isis standing, with sistrum. |
|Head of Isis.||Head-dress of Isis. |
|Head of Persephone.||Demeter standing, with torch and
|Id.||Wreath of corn. |
|Head of Demeter, veiled.||Crossed torches. |
|Head of Apollo.||Torch. |
|Head of Zeus (?).||Tripod. |
|Head of Apollo.||Q and priest’s cap (galerus). |
|Head of Demeter veiled.||Quiver, bow, and arrow, crossed. |
|Head of Helios.||Naked Egyptian deity wearing kalathos.
|Head of Janus.||Quiver (?). |
|Head of Asklepios.||Serpent-staff. |
For other coins which may have been struck in Syracuse for Sicily under the Romans, see Bahrfeldt, Die römisch-sicilischen Münzen aus der Zeit der Republik (Geneva, 1904).
Tauromenium (Taormina), which stood on a lofty height, Mount Taurus, near the site of the ancient Naxus, was a Sikel fortress built in B.C. 396. Subsequently, B.C. 358, the exiled inhabitants of Naxus occupied the place. It then became an important Greek town. Its ruler,
|ΑΡΧΑΓΕΤΑS Head of Apollo.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XII. 18.]
|ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Bull, often man-
headed, walking. |
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XII. 19.]|| „ Bull rushing. |
|Id.|| „ Forepart of bull. |
The worship of Apollo Archegetes, which the Naxians brought with them from Greece, was kept up by the people of Tauromenium. Accord- ing to Thucydides (vi. 3) whenever any sacred Theori left Sicily they sacrificed at the altar of this god before setting sail. The bull is the punning badge of the city.
|ΑΡΧΑΓΕΤΑΣ Head of Apollo.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 1.]
|ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Lyre. |
|„ Id.|| „ Tripod. |
|„ Id.|| „ Bunch of grapes.
|ΣΑΡΔΩΙ (retrogr.) Female head in stephanos||Grapes and leaves. |
Whether this last coin is rightly attributed to Tauromenium is doubtful. The legend of the obverse remains unexplained (Imhoof, Berl. Blätt., v. 59).
The following little gold coins, of about B.C. 300, may possibly be of Tauromenium (Holm, iii. p. 692), as the types are appropriate and as the monogram occurs on other Tauromenian coins.
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.||ΠΑ or ΑΠ (in mon.) Owl. |
AV 8.3 grs.[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XII. 16.]
|Head of Apollo.|| „ Lyre. |
AV 5.4 grs.[Ibid., Pl. XII. 17.]
|Head of Apollo.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Tripod.
AV 33.75 grs. = 30 litr.
|Id. Symbols: bee, cicada, club, &c.|| „ Id. Various mono-
gram sand letters. |
AV 16.8 grs. = 15 litr.
|Head of Apollo.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Omphalos encircled
by serpent. |
AR 135 grs. = 10 litr.[Paris; Holm, Pl. VII. 6.]
|Head of Athena.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Pegasos; beneath,
AR 90 grs. = 8 obols.
|Head of Apollo. Symbol: star.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. 47. 40.]
| „ Tripod.
AR 54 grs. = 4 litr.
|Bull’s head facing.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜ Grapes. |
AR 13.5 grs. = 1 litr.[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 9.]
The weights here given are the normal weights (Head, Syr., pp. 79-80).
With the octobol compare the contemporary octobol of Syracuse. The precise date of the issue of these gold and silver coins cannot be fixed with certainty, but some of them may be placed as late as the interval between the death of Hieron II, B.C. 216, and the constitution of the Roman province of Sicily, B.C. 210 :—
|Head of bearded Herakles wearing taenia.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Bull. |
|Head of Apollo.|| „ Tripod. |
|ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Head of young Dionysos.||ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ Id. |
|Head of Athena.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Pegasos. |
|Head of Apollo.||Bull. |
|Head of Dionysos.||Bull. |
|Head of Athena.|| „ Owl on amphora.
|Head of Zeus. [Tropea, p. 33, No. 9.]||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Eagle
Æ wt. 85 grs.
|Id. [Tropea, No. 10.]|| „ Rushing bull.
Æ wt. 62 grs.
|Head of Hermes. [Tropea, No. 19.]||ΤΑΥΡΟΜ Bull. |
Æ wt. 162 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΤΑΥΡΟΜΕΝΙΤΑΝ Dionysos stand-
ing, holds thyrsos; at his feet, panther.
Although Tauromenium retained a nominal independence under the Romans, and in the reign of Augustus received a Roman colony, it does not appear to have coined money after B.C. 210, with the possible exception of the last coin mentioned above.
Tyndaris (near C. Tindaro), on the north coast of Sicily, near Mylae, and about thirty-six miles west of Messana, was founded by Dionysius the Elder B.C. 396 and peopled with Messenian exiles from Naupactus and Peloponnesus expelled from Greece by the Spartans at the close of the Peloponnesian war. The Messenians called their new city Tyndaris, after the Dioskuri, sons of Tyndareus, whom they claimed as natives of Messenia (Paus. iii. 26-3). The worship of Helen as Tyndaris also falls into the same mythological cycle.
The coins of Tyndaris (see von Duhn, Z. f. N., iii. 1876, pp. 27-39; and Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 33) are of three periods :—
|ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΣ Head of Helen wearing stephane.||Free horse; above, two stars.
AR 11 grs.
|Id. Behind, star.||One of the Dioskuri.
|ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΔΟΣ Head of Apollo.||ΑΓΑΘΥΡΝΟΣ The hero Agathyrnos
standing with shield and lance. |
|ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Head of Persephone in corn-wreath.||ΣΩΤΗΡΕΣ the Dioskuri on horseback.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XII. 21]. |
|ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Head of Apollo.||Horse’s head. |
|„ Id.||Cock. |
| „ „
[Tropea, p. 34, No. 7.]
Æ wt. 23 grs.
The coin reading ΣΩΤΗΡΕΣ appears to belong to the time of Timo- leon’s expedition, when we hear of Tyndaris as espousing the cause of freedom. The type of Agathyrnos shows that the Sikel town of Aga- thyrnum was at the time in the possession of Tyndaris. At a later period Tyndaris was in the hands of the Carthaginians, and does not appear to have struck money again until after the fall of Panormus.
|Female head, veiled.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ The Dioskuri on horse-
|Id.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Zeus standing; holds
fulmen and sceptre. |
|Head of Zeus.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ The Dioskuri stand-
ing, with or without horses. |
|Id.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Eagle on fulmen.
|Head of Poseidon.|| „ Trident. |
|Head of Athena.|| „ Caduceus between
olive-branch and corn-ear. |
|Id.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Hermes standing
|Female head veiled.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Caps of the Dioskuri.
[Hill, Sicily, Pl. XIV. 11]. |
|Bust of Eros, winged.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Thunderbolt. |
|Head of young Dionysos.|| „ Grapes. |
|Prow.|| „ Caps of Dioskuri with
|Caps of Dioskuri with stars.||ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ Star. |
For coins struck by Tyndaris and Lipara in alliance, see under Lipara.
In the time of Augustus coins were issued with the names of L. Mus- sidi[us] Procos, and the duumviri C. Iulius F. Longus, C. Iulius Diony- sius, &c. (Holm, Nos. 755-7).
The statue of Hermes on the reverse of one of these coins is doubtless the one mentioned by Cicero (II Verr. iv. 39) as ‘simulacrum Mercurii pulcherrimum’. It had been carried off by the Carthaginians and was restored to the people of Tyndaris by Scipio.
Tyrrheni. Among the coins restruck over Syracusan bronze in the time of Timoleon is the following, which was probably issued at Aetna or Thermae by mercenaries of Dionysius.
|ΤΥΡΡΗ Head of Ares (?).
[Head, Syracuse, p. 39, Pl. VII a. 6.]
|Athena standing to front. |
|ΩΝΑΣ Head of young river-god, horned, and crowned with reeds. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. B. 24, 25.]||ΘΗΡΑΙΩΝ(?) Pan playing syrinx
before a large oblong chest (?) sur-
mounted by the busts of three nymphs.
Siculo-Punic Coins. See under Carthage.
Lipara (G. Tropea, Num. di Lipara, in Arch. Stor. Messinese, i. 1901) does not seem to have coined money before the middle of the fourth century B.C. On the standard used, see Willers, Rhein. Mus., lx. pp. 353 ff.
|Head of Hephaestos in conical pilos.||ΛΙΡΑΡΑΙΟΝ Stern of galley.
Æ 1.55 Litra c. 1667 grs.[Willers, p. 354.]
Also hemilitron, tetras, hexas, and onkia, all with marks of value.
|Hephaestos seated, with hammer and kantharos.||ΛΙΠΑΡΑΙΟΝ Dolphin.
Æ Litra c. 210 grs. normal.
Also smaller denominations as in first period, without dolphin but with marks of value. The litra is a reduction to 1/8 of the original.
|Head of young Ares, laureate.||ΛΙΠΑΡΑΙΩΝ Trident. |
The date of this coin is fixed to circ. B.C. 288 by its resemblance to the Mamertine issues.
|Head of Poseidon.||ΛΙΠΑΡΑΙΩΝ Trident. |
Probably at some time in the third century Lipara issued coins in alliance with Tyndaris. Obv. ΛΙΠΑΡΑΙΟΝ (or -ΩΝ), Rev. ΤΥΝΔΑΡΙΤΑΝ; Types, Head of Hephaestos, Dioskuri standing, &c. (Tropea, Riv. di Stor. Antica, 1901, where they are assigned to B.C. 309-304).
The island was occupied by the Carthaginians, probably at some time shortly after B.C. 288. The Romans captured it in B.C. 252.
During this period the litra was again reduced, this time to 1/16 of the original weight. The coins of this series have the same types as in the preceding period; in addition there were issued other bronze coins with the following types : Head of Poseidon, rev. Young Hephaestos standing, or Head of Hephaestos, rev. Hephaestos fighting, &c.
The chief coin is one with the names Γ. ΜΑΡΚΙΟC ΛΕ. Γ. ΑCΩΝΕΥC ΔΥΟ ΑΝΔΡ., i.e. apparently G. Marcius L. f. and G. Asoneus, duoviri.
Sardinia. Of this island there are no Greek coins. For the rude bronze coins reading M. ATIVS BALBVS PR(aetor) and SARD. PATER (head of Sardus Pater with plumed head-dress and sceptre), see Klebs in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Enc., ii. 2253.