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[B. M. C., Thessaly to Aetolia, 1883.
P. Monceaux, ‘La légende et l'histoire en Thessalie,’ in Rev. des Etudes gr., 1888.
Id. ‘Fastes éponymiques de la Ligue thessalienne,’ in Rev. arch., 1889.]

The fertile plain of Thessaly, shut in on an sides by lofty mountain ranges, and watered by the river Peneius and its tributary streams, was believed to have once formed a vast lake, until, by the agency of the earth-shaking Poseidon, the rocks which confined the waters were rent asunder at the pass of Tempe, and an outlet thus made for the Peneius into the sea (Herod. vii. 129). Hence Poseidon was very generally revered in Thessaly as the creator of the national soil, as well as of the celebrated Thessalian horses which grazed in the rich alluvial plains with which the land abounded (Hom. Il. ii. 763).

As Poseidon ταυρεος (Preller, Gr. Myth., 4th ed., i. 570), games were held in his honour, in which the youth of Thessaly exhibited their skill in seizing wild bulls by the horns ‘praeterea Thessalos equites, qui feros tauros per spatia circi agunt insiliuntque defessos et ad terram cornibus detrahunt’ (Suet., v. Claud., c. 21). These peculiarly national religious festivals were called ταυρεια (Preller, l. c., note 4) and ταυροκαθαφια, and their prevalence throughout the land is amply proved by the coins, on which we see a Thessalian athlete pulling down a raging bull, while on the reverse is usually a horse (accompanied sometimes by the Poseidonian trident), now quietly grazing, now bounding rapidly along with rein flying loose, or issuing from a rock and so symbolizing the springs of clear water called forth by the stroke of the trident of Poseidon, the cleaver of rocks (πετραιος, Preller, l. c., p. 572). ‘Primus ab aequorea percussis cuspide saxis Thessalicus sonipes bellis feralibus omen Exsiluit’ (Lucan, Phars. vi. 396).

Macdonald (Coin Types, p. 98) has been the first to point out that the bull and matador, &c., on the obverses, and the horse or horseman on the reverses, of so many Thessalian coins, are types complementary to one another, and forming together a sort of picture of one of the national bull- fights. It is indeed highly probable that the motif of older Thessalian

coin-types was agonistic; for there can be little doubt that, almost every- where in Greece, there was a special demand for current money during the periodical local games, and, moreover, that in most of the smaller Greek cities, whose money circulated chiefly within their own territories, an issue of coins would only be required in festival years.

The Thessalians do not appear to have felt the want of a coinage of their own before the beginning of the fifth century B.C. It was then that Larissa and Pherae first found it necessary to issue money, and probably on the occasions of the celebration of the ταυρεια of Poseidon.

The weight-standard of the coins of Thessaly, from the earliest times down to the second century B.C., was the Aeginetic. This fact indicates that whatever commercial dealings may have taken place between Thessaly and the outside world beyond its mountain barriers, must have been in the direction of Phocis and Boeotia, where the Aeginetic standard prevailed, and not with Macedon in the north, or with the cities of Euboea, or with Athens.

Historically, the Thessalian coinage falls into three well-defined periods:—

(i) B.C. 480, or earlier, to B.C. 344, from the Persian wars to the time of the subjection of the country by Philip of Macedon, when the autono- mous issues of the Thessalian cities come to an abrupt termination, and are supplanted by the regal money of Macedon. The coins of this period may be subdivided by style into two classes, (α) B.C. 480-400, with the reverse type in an incuse square, and (β) B.C. 400-344, without the incuse square.

(ii) B.C. 302-286. New issue of silver coins in Thessaly, probably on the occasion of the expedition into Thessaly of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who then bestowed liberty upon several Thessalian cities. These silver issues lasted no long time, but it is probable that bronze money con- tinued to be struck in Thessaly throughout the century of Macedonian rule.

(iii) B.C. 196-146. This period is marked by Federal coinages in the names of the Thessalians, the Magnetes, the Perrhaebians, the Aenianians. and the Oetaeans, which came into existence after the proclamation of the freedom of Greece by Flamininus, and lasted until Thessaly was incorporated with the Roman province of Macedonia, B.C. 146.

Geographically, Thessaly is divided into the following districts, Perrhaebia, Histiaeotis, Thessaliotis, Pelasgiotis, Magnesia, Phthiotis, Aeniania, and Oetaea.

Achaei of Phthiotis. The coins assigned in the first edition of this work to the Phthiotan Achaeans are described infra, see Achaean League. Cf. N. C., 1902, p. 324 sq.

Aenianes. The earliest coins of this people belong in style to the later period of fine art.

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Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Zeus.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 1.]
ΑΙΝΙΑΝΩΝ Warrior hurling javelin and holding his petasos, or a small shield, before him.
AR ½ Dr. 43 grs.
Head of Zeus. ΑΙΝΙΑΝ Sword in sheath and javelin.
AR Obol.


Circ. B.C. 168-146.

The second series of Aenianian coins probably began after the dissolu- tion of the Aetolian League, to which the Aenianes had been subject. These late coins were perhaps intended to pass as Attic didrachms, the obverse type being copied from the coins of Athens. They bear the name in the nominative case of one of the five Aeniarchs of the League (Collitz, Dialectinschr., 1431 b., 1432).

coin image
FIG. 171.

Head of Athena; her helmet adorned with griffin and foreparts of horse (Fig. 171). ΑΙΝΙΑΝΩΝ Slinger adjusting his sling; beside him, two javelins.
AR 120 (max.) grs.
Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 3.]
   "    Slinger.
AR 38 (max.) grs.
Head of Zeus.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 4.]
   "    Warrior hurling javelin.
AR 36 grs.

The Aenianian bronze coins resemble in their types the silver of the late class. The slinger represented on the coins of this people is pro- bably their mythical king, Phemius, concerning whom See Plutarch (Quaest. Gr. xiii), who relates that the stone with which he slew his adversary was revered as sacred by the Aenianes. See also Hypata, where the above coins were perhaps struck.

Atrax (Pelasgiotis), on the northern bank of the Peneius, about ten miles west of Larissa.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Nymph.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 7.]
ΑΤΡΑΓΙΟΝ Free horse walking.
AR ½ Dr.
Bearded head (of Atrax ?).
[N. C., 1896, Pl. II. 6.]
ΑΤΡΑ (retrogr.) Cupping-glass and forceps.
Æ .8
Similar. [Ibid., Pl. II. 7.] ΑΤΡΑΓΙΩΝ Rushing bull.
Æ .45
Head of Apollo.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 8.]
   "    Horseman.
Æ .95

The types of this last coin are copied from the coins of Philip of Macedon.


Cierium (Thessaliotis), anciently called Arne, after a nymph of that name, a daughter of Aeolos the son of Hippotes (Paus. ix. 40. 3), who by Poseidon became the mother of Boeotos.



Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Zeus, resembling in style that on the coins of Philip of Macedon. [Bompois, Ciérium, Pl. I. 1. Photiades Sale Cat., Lot 51.] ΚΙΕΡΙΕ... Youthful Asklepios or Apollo naked, seated before a tree round which a serpent twines.
AR Didr.
Id., or Head of Arne.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 9, 10.]
ΚΙΕΡΙΕΙΩΝ Nymph Arne kneeling on one knee and playing with astra- gali.
AR Trihemiobol.
Horse feeding or galloping.
[Molthein Cat., 1194.]
ΚΙΕ or ΚΙΕΡΙΕΙΩΝ Naked hero (Ajax?) fighting, armed with helmet, shield, and sword.
AR Obol.
Head of Poseidon; behind, trident. ΚΙ Head of Arne.
AR ½ Obol.

The bronze coins of Cierium date from about the middle of the fourth century and later. Inscr., ΚΙΕΡ., ΚΙΕΡΙΕΩΝ or ΚΙΕΡΙΕΙΩΝ.

Head of Poseidon or Zeus. [Bompois, Ciérium, Pl. I. 5; cf. N. C., 1899, Pl., VII. 3.1 Arne playing with astragali.
Æ .55
Id. [Ibid., I. 8.] Horse galloping; beneath, Arne.
Æ .7
Head of Apollo.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 2.]
Zeus hurling fulmen; in field, Arne.
Æ .85

The figure of Arne casting lots with astragali has probably no special reference to a local oracle at Cierium. There are numerous purely artistic Thessalian coin-types which can only be accounted for as fanciful devices. If the seated divinity oil the reverse of the first of the above-described coins be indeed Asklepios, as is probable from the prevalence of Asklepian worship in Thessaly (cf. coins of Tricca and Atrax), it is perhaps the earliest representation of that god occurring on coins. See Bompois, Didrachme de Ciérium, Paris, 1876.

Crannon (Pelasgiotis), the residence of the powerful family of the Scopadae, was situated near the source of the river Onchestus, which took its name from Onchestos the son of Poseidon. The coins of Crannon show that Poseidon received especial honours there, not of course as a sea-god, but as the father of springs and rivers. The horse and the bull, accompanied by the trident, taken in connexion with each other, refer to the ταυρεια or bull-fights held at the Poseidonian festivals. The curious type of some of the bronze coins, a hydria on wheels accompanied by two crows, is explained by Antigonus Carystius (Hist. Mirab., 15), who says that ‘the παρασημον or device of the city consisted of two crows seated on a chariot, and that when there occurred a great drought it was customary to agitate, σειειν, or drive about, the chariot whilst petitioning Zeus for rain’ (see also Macdonald, Coin Types, p. 65).


Circ. B.C. 480-400.
Naked Thessalian subduing bull; in field, bird flying. [Overbeck, Kunst- myth.; Poseidon, Pl. VI. 25.] ΚRΑ or ΚRΑΝΟ Incuse square. Horse of Poseidon, with trident behind neck, striking the ground with forefoot.
AR Drachm.


On the smaller divisions, portions of the above types are represented (B. M. C., Thes., 16; Babelon, Traité, p. 1022).

BRONZE. After B.C. 400.
Head of Poseidon, laureate. Thessalian horseman.
Æ .8
Bust of Thessalian in kausia. Id.
Æ .75
Thessalian horseman. Rushing bull. Symbol: Trident.
Æ .55
Id. Hydria on car with two crows perched on the wheels.
Æ .65
Head of Zeus. Id.
Æ .6
[Cf. B. M. C., Thes., Pl. II. 11-15.]

Demetrias (Magnesia), on the Pagasaean Gulf, was founded by Deme- trius Poliorcetes, B.C. 290, and became the favourite residence of the Macedonian kings. See also Magnetes.

Circ. B.C. 290.
Bust of Artemis. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΕΩΝ Prow.
AR 36.3grs.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 1.]


Eccarra (?) (Phthiotis ?). To an unknown city of this name (probably the Ακαρρα of Steph. Byz. and the Acharrae of Livy (xxxii. 13)) M. Six (N. C., 1890, 186) would assign the coins erroneously attributed to Icaria, an island near Samos. They seem to belong to the latter half of the fourth century B.C.

Head of Zeus laur. ΕΚΚΑΡΡΕΩΝ Artemis standing to front, resting on spear.
Æ .45


Elateia. See Elateia in Phocis, infra, p. 342.

Eurea (Pelasgiotis ?).

Before circ. B.C. 344.
Female head facing, crowned with grapes; type suggested by Kimon's head of Arethusa on coin of Syracuse. Cf. coins of Larissa, and, for reverse, coins of Rhizus and of Scotussa [N. C., 1896, Pl. VII. 3, 4]. ΕΥΡΕΑΙΩΝ Vine-branch with grapes and letter Λ.
Æ .8


Eurymenae (Magnesia). See Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encycl. s. v.

Circ. B.C. 300-146.
Head of young Dionysos.
[Rev. Num., 1843, Pl. X. 1.]
ΕΥΡΥΜΕΝΑΙΩΝ Vine-tree. Symbols: krater and dolphin.
Æ .8

Gomphi=Philippopolis (Histiaeotis), at the foot of Mt. Pindus, on the road which led through the pass into Athamania. On the mountain above the town stood a temple of Zeus Akraios, whose statue is seen on

the coins. Philip II changed the name of this town to Philippopolis, but it subsequently resumed its ancient appellation.

Circ. B.C. 350.
Head of Hera (?) facing, wearing ste- phanos, ear-rings, and necklace, and with two fillets hanging down on either side. [N. C., 1891, Pl. IV. 8] Photiades Cat., Pl. I. 59.] ΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ Zeus Akraios seated on rock (Mt. Pindus) and rest- ing on sceptre; in field, fulmen.
AR Didrachm and Drachm.

Circ. B.C. 300.
Similar, or head of nymph with floating hair. ΛΟΜΦ or ΓΟΜΕΩΝ Zeus enthroned [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 4]
Æ .85-.7
Æ .8
Head of Apollo. Id.
Æ .8


Gonnus (Pelasgiotis), on the river Peneius, near the pass of Tempe.

Circ. B.C. 300.
Head of Zeus. ΓΟΝΝΕΩΝ Ram [Z. f. 11., xiii. 10].
Æ .8
Female head to r. ΓΟΝΝΕ Lion standing.
Æ .7
[Rev. Num., 1877, Pl. XVI. 18.]

Gyrton (Pelasgiotis), about five miles north of Larissa.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of nymph facing.
[Hirsch Coll.]
ΓΥΡΤΩΝΙΩΝ Horse feeding.
AR ½ Drachm.
Young male head beside horse’s head.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 3.]
ΓΥΡΤΩΝΙΟΝ or ΓΥΡΤΩΝΙΩΝ Head of goddess in profile.
Æ .65
Young male head in crested helmet.
[B. M. C., Thes., p. 203.]
ΓΥΡΤΩΝΙΩΝ Head of goddess, r., wearing stephane.
Æ .75
Head of Apollo, hair short, laur. ΓΥΡΤΩΝΙΩΝ Female head to l.
Æ .7
Head of Zeus.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 5, 6.]
Bridled horse.
Æ .95-.8


Halus (Phthiotis), on the northern shore of the Pagasaean Gulf, at the extremity of Mt. Othrys, said to have been founded by Athamas, one of the sons of Aeolos. Zeus was here worshipped as the dark god of storm and winter under the epithet of Laphustios (the Devourer). To this divinity Athamas was ordered by an oracle to sacrifice his children Phrixos and Helle. The myth of their rescue by means of the ram with fleece of gold, sent by their divine mother, Nephele, forms the subject of the coin-types of Halus.

The only silver coin known seems to be a modern cast from a bronze piece (Num. Zeit., 1901, 25). The bronze coins may be of two periods, B.C. 400-344 and B.C. 300-200. Some of these last bear the monogram ΑΧ of the Phthiotan Achaeans.

Head of Zeus Laphystios, laureate, or wearing taenia; in front, sometimes, fulmen. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 1; N. C., 1899, Pl. VII. 1.] ΑΛΕΩΝ Phrixos naked, or more rarely Helle draped, holding on to the ram.
Æ .7-.55


Heracleia Trachinia (Oetaea). This important Spartan stronghold commanded the only road into Thessaly from the south. It was named Heracleia in consequence of the cult of Herakles, indigenous in Trachis and Oetaea from the earliest times (Preller, Gr. Myth., ii. 247). Its coins belong to the earlier half of the fourth century.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Lion’s head.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 7-9.]
ΗΡΑΚ or ΗΡΑ Club. Symbols: ivy- leaves, crayfish, &c.
AR Obols, ½ Obols, and ¼ Obols.
Lion’s head.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 10, 11.]
Id., or club in wreath.
Æ .7-.6

See also Oetaei.


Homolium (Magnesia), at the foot of Mt. Homole, near the vale of Tempe.

Circ. B.C. 300.
Head of hero (Philoktetes?) in conical hat (pileus).
[N. C., 1899, Pl. VII. 2.]
ΟΜΟΛΙΕΩΝ or ΟΜΟΛΙΚΟΝ Serpent coiled.
Æ .8-.7

The serpent may here symbolize the worship of Asklepios, or it may be connected with the myth of Philoktetes.


Hypata (Aeniania). The capital of the Aenianes.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Zeus; behind, fulmen.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 11 a.]
ΥΠΑΤΑΙΩΝ Athena Nikephoros stand- ing with spear and shield.
Æ .85 and .55

Lamia (Phthiotis), near the head of the Malian Gulf, and the chief town of the people called the Malians. The coins usually read ΛΑΜΙΕΩΝ, more rarely ΜΑΛΙΕΩΝ.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of young Dionysos, ivy-crowned. ΛΑΜΙΕΩΝ Amphora.
AR ½ Dr. and Obol.
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 13; VII. 5.] ΜΑΛΙΕΩΝ Id.
AR ½ Dr.
Head of nymph (Lamia, daughter of Poseidon ?), hair rolled.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. III. 15.]
ΛΑΜΙΕΩΝ Wounded Philoktetes naked, seated on the ground support- ing himself with one hand and raising the other to the top of his hat; beneath, bird.
Æ .6
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IV. 3.] ΛΑΜΙΕΩΝ Philoktetes (or Herakles ?) on one knee shooting with bow and arrow at birds.
Æ .6
Head of Athena.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 6.]
ΜΑΛΙΕΩΝ Similar, but Philoktetes in standing posture.
Æ .55


Circ. B.C. 302-286.

coin image
FIG. 172.

Female head (nymph Lamia ?), bound with taenia and wearing ear-ring (Fig. 172). ΛΑΜΙΕΩΝ Philoktetes or Herakles naked, seated on rock, holds bow in case.
AR Dr., 86 grs.

Gardner (Num. Chron., 1878, 266) believed the head on this coin to be a portrait of Lamia, the famous hetaira who captivated and lived with Demetrius Poliorcetes. In her honour both Athens and Thebes erected temples, and the people of the town of Lamia, to flatter Demetrius, may have placed her head on their coins. Friedlaender considered the head in question to be that of Apollo (Zeit. f. Num., vii. 352), and cited a coin of Amphipolis on which a head, presumed by him to be a head of Apollo, wears ear-rings. (See supra, p. 215 note.)


Larissa (Pelasgiotis), on the right bank of the Peneius, was the most important town in Thessaly, and the residence of the Aleuadae, the noblest of all the aristocratic families of the land.

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The mythical ancestor of the race, Aleuas, was a descendant of Herakles through one of his sons, Thessalos.

The rich series of the coins of Larissa begins at an earlier date than that of any other Thessalian town. The sandal of Jason on the oldest coins refers to the story of the loss of one of that hero’s sandals in cross- ing the river Anaurus. The coins of the best period are of exquisite beauty. The head of the nymph is clearly that of the fountain Larissa, and was doubtless copied from the beautiful full-face head of Arethusa on contemporary tetradrachms of Syracuse. The coin with the head of Aleuas, with the name ΕΛΛΑ on the reverse, may belong to the time of the occupation of Larissa by Alexander of Pherae. The name, ΣΙΜΟΣ, is that of an Aleuad chief who appears to have been appointed tetrarch of one of the four divisions of Thessaly by Philip of Macedon, B.C. 353 (B. M. C., Thes., p. xxv; but see Hill, Hist. Gk. Coins, pp. 93 ff.). On Philip’s second invasion of Thessaly, B.C. 344, he put down the tetrarchs whom he had formerly set up, and Thessaly was brought into direct subjection to Macedon. From this time there is a break in the issue of silver money throughout Thessaly. All coins struck in the country now bore the name and types first of Philip and then of Alexander; and there is nothing to show that Larissa recovered her autonomy until the liberation of Greece by Flamininus in B.C. 197, when it became the place of mintage of the Federal coinage of Thessaly, concerning which see R. Weil, Z. f. N., i. 172 ff., and B. M. C., Thes., pp. 1-6.

Before Circ. B.C. 480.
Horse biting his foreleg; above, par- tridge, or cicada.
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIII. 1-3]
Sandal of Jason, above which, some- times, bipennis, in incuse square.
AR Drachm.
Head of Jason in petasos. ΛΑRΙ Sandal, sometimes with bipennis above, in incuse square.
AR ½ Dr.
Head of nymph, or bull’s head. ΛΑ Sandal or horse’s head, in incuse square. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IV. 6, 7; cf. Hunter, I. p. 451.]
AR Obols.

Circ. B.C. 480-430.
Inscr., ΛΑRΙ, ΛΑRΙSΑ, ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙ, ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΟΝ, &c.; Drachms, ½ Drachms, Trihemiobols or ¼ Drachms, and Obols.
coin image
FIG. 173.

Thessalian youth restraining bull, or forepart of bull. Free horse, or forepart of horse in incuse square (Fig. 173).
Horseman or Horse.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IV. 10, 11.]
Nymph Larissa, seated on chair or sup- porting on her knee a hydria which she has filled at a fountain, or seated on hydria and playing with ball, &c., in incuse square.

This and later reverse types illustrate the story of the nymph Larissa who, while playing ball, fell into the river Peneius (Eustath., ad Hom., 1554, 34).

Circ. B.C. 430-400.

Inscr., ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΑ, ΛΑΡΙΣΑ, &c.; Drachms, Trihemiobols, and Obols.
Thessalian youth restraining bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IV. 12, 13; Pl. V. 1, 2, 4.]
Incuse square. Free horse of Poseidon.
AR Dr.
Horseman. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. V. 5.] Incuse square. Nymph Larissa on chair, holding a mirror before her face.
AR Trihemiob.
Horse. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IV. 15; Pl. V. 6-8; N. C., 1902, Pl. XV. 7.] Incuse square. Nymph in various atti- tudes, playing ball or fastening her sandal, &c.
AR Obol.
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. V. 9.] Incuse square. Asklepios feeding serpent.
AR Obol.
Horse’s or bull’s hoof on shield. [B. M. C., Thes., 28, 46; N. C., 1900, Pl. XIII. 11.] Incuse square. Larissa running and playing ball, or bust of Asklepios with serpent in front.
AR Obol.


Circ. B.C. 400-344.

Inscr., ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΑ, ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ, ΛΑΡΙΣΑ; Didrachms, Drachms, ½ Drachms, and Trihemiobols.

coin image
FIG. 174.

Head of fountain nymph, Larissa, at first in profile, and later facing with flowing locks; a copy of Kimon's full-face head of Arethusa on a coin of Syracuse (p. 177) [Fig. 174, also N. C., 1895, Pl. V. 6]. Horse galloping, trotting, grazing, or held by man; or mare walking be- side her foal. Sometimes with name ΣΙΜΟΣ, the Tetrarch of Larissa, B.C. 352-344.
ΑΛΕΥΑ Head of Aleuas in richly ornamented conical helmet. Eagle on fulmen; in field, ΕΛΛΑ.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. V. 12.]
AR Dr.
Running bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. V. 13.]
Thessalian horseman galloping.
AR Dr.

The obv. and rev types of this last coin are complementary of one another, and, taken together, represent a Thessalian Bull-fight (Mac- donald, Coin Types, p. 99).

BRONZE. Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Larissa in profile. Head of Asklepios and serpent.
Æ .7
Id. Feeding horse [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VI. 13]
Æ .65
Head of Larissa facing. Id., or horseman.
Æ .75
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VI. 11, 12.] Trotting horse.
Æ .85

Circ. B.C. 300-200, or later.
Head of Apollo, laureate. ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ Artemis huntress.
Æ .85

After B.C. 146.
ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ Herakles naked, seated on rock. ΛΑΡΙΣΑ Larissa standing draped, one hand raised to her forehead.
Æ .6

Larissa Cremaste (Phthiotis) stood on the slope of a steep hill (hence the surname κρεμαστη) about twenty miles west of the Malian Gulf. It was believed to have anciently formed part of the dominions of Achilles, whose head appears upon some of its coins. When Demetrius Poliorcetes, in B.C. 302, invaded Thessaly he took Pherae and Larissa Cremaste and

proclaimed them free, and it is to this period that its earliest coins belong.

Circ. B.C. 302-286.
Head of Achilles (?), r. or l., with loose hair. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 1.] ΛΑΡΙ Thetis riding on hippocamp bearing shield of Achilles inscribed ΑΧ.
Æ .75
Head of nymph. [Imhoof Coll.] ΛΑΡΙ Perseus holding harpa and Gorgon’s head.
Æ .7
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VI. 15; cf. N. C., 1893, 25.] ΛΑΡΙ Harpa in wreath.
Æ .55

On the types of these coins see Reinach in Corolla Num., p. 269.

Circ. B.C. 197-146.
Head of Zeus. [Imhoof Coll.] ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ Athena in fighting atti- tude; in field, mon. ΑΧ.
Æ .8


Magnetes. This people after the liberation of Thessaly, B.C. 197, struck federal coins for the whole of the Magnesian peninsula at Deme- trias, where their assemblies were held, and where the Magnetarchs resided (Livy xxv. 31). The head of Zeus is clearly contemporary with that on the Federal coins of the Thessali.

B.C. 197-146.
Head of Zeus crowned with oak.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 2, 3.]
ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ Artemis with bow, seated on prow; in field monograms or Magnetarch’s name, ΗΓΗΣΑΝ- ΔΡΟΣ.
AR Attic Dr.
Bust of Artemis. ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ Prow.
AR Dr.

Head of Zeus.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 4.]
ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ Centaur holding branch.
Æ .9-.8
Head of Zeus or Artemis.       „    Prow.
Æ .6
Head of Poseidon.       „    Id.
AE. 8
Head of Apollo or Artemis       „    Artemis with torch.
Æ .6
Bust of Artemis.       „    Poseidon standing.
Æ .6
Head of Asklepios.       „    Asklepios seated with serpent-staff; at his feet, dog, or feed- ing serpent from phiale.
Æ .9

Roman Times (Nero to Gallienus).
ΜΑΓΝΗΤWΝΑΡΓW Ship Argo. Centaur playing lyre.
Æ .9
CΕΒΑCΤΟC Head of Nero. ΜΑΓΝΗ[ΤΩΝ] Centaur.
Æ .65

Among other types on Imperial coins are Aphrodite Neleia (ΑΦΡΟ. ΝΗΛΕΙΑ) and Zeus ΑΚΡΑΙΟC (Wace, J. H. S., xxvi. pp. 165 ff.).

As Iolcus was one of the towns included in the territory of Demetrias, the Argo is here an appropriate type.

The Centaur is Cheiron, who dwelt in the neighbouring Mt. Pelion, and to whom sacrifices were offered by the Magnetes until a late date (Plut. Sympos. iii. 1).


Malienses, see Lamia.


Meliboea (Magnesia), on the sea-coast a few miles north of Mt. Pelion, mentioned by Homer as subject to Philoktetes (Il. ii. 717)

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of nymph facing crowned with bunches of grapes.
[N. C., 1895, Pl. V. 7.]
ΜΕΛΙΒΟΕ Vine-branch with two bunches of grapes.
AR 18.2 grs.
Head of nymph facing or in profile.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 4.]
ΜΕΛΙ or ΜΕΛΙΒΟΕ One or two bunches of grapes.
Æ .7-.35


Melitaea (Phthiotis) near the river Enipeus.

Circ. B.C. 350.
Head of Zeus r. laur.
[N. C., 1892, Pl. II. 11.]
ΜΕΛΙΤΕ... Bull grazing r., in shallow inc. sq.
AR Dr. 93 grs.
Head of young Dionysos (?). [Prokesch, Ined., 1854, Pl. I. 35.] ΜΕ Lion’s head.
AR Obol.
Head of Zeus.
[Ibid., Pl. I. 30.]
AR Diob., and Æ .7

The Bee, μελιττα, contains an allusion to the name of the town.


Methydrium (?) (Thessaliotis), probably near Scotussa (Imhoof, Zeit. f. Num., i. 93).

Circ. B.C. 480-400.
Forepart of springing horse.
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIII. 15.]
Incuse square, placed diagonally. ΜΕ ΘΥ Corn-grain with its husk.
AR Dr. 90 grs.

To this city may be also conjecturally attributed the following ½ drachm:—
Forepart of horse springing from rocks.
[N. C., 1890, Pl. XIX. 6.]
//////ΕΘ///// Inc. sq., within which, head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin.
AR ½ Dr. 46.6 grs.

The attribution of these two coins to Methydrium is, however, uncer- tain. They may both belong to another city called Methylium, only known from coins; or, as Wroth suggests (N. C., 1890, 317), the ½ Drachm, with the incomplete inscription, should probably be read [Φ]ΕΘ[Α] and be assigned to Pherae (q. v.).


Methylium. The two following bronze coins are the only existing records of a town of this name.

Circ. B.C. 350, or later.
Young male head, r., with short hair. [Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. IV. 13.] ΜΕΘΥΛΙΕΩΝ Horseman with couched spear r.; symbol, Athena Promachos.
Æ .8
Head of nymph, l.
[N. C., 1895, Pl. V. 8.]
Æ .65

Metropolis (Histiaeotis), in the plain at the foot of one of the eastern offshoots of the Pindus range, near the borders of Histiaeotis and Thes- saliotis. Aphrodite was here worshipped under the name Καστνιητις, and swine were sacrificed to her (Strab. ix. p. 437 f.)

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Aphrodite facing; to l., bird(?); to r., Nike crowning her.
[Imhoof Coll.]
ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟ[ΛΙΤΩΝ] Dionysos stand- ing.
AR Diob.
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 8.] ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ Apollo Kitha- roedos.
AR Trihemiobol.
Bearded head facing.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 7.]
ΜΗΤΡΟ Figure seated on rock under tree, holding thyrsos.
AR Obol.

Circ. B.C. 300-200.
Head of Apollo. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ Forepart of bull.
Æ .75
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 6.] ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ Aphrodite Kast- nietis standing, holding dove, with Eros beside her.
Æ .75
Id. ΜΗΤ Dove flying.
Æ .6


Mopsium (Pelasgiotis), between Larissa and Tempe. The town was named after the Lapith Mopsos, the companion of the Argonauts.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Zeus facing; on r., fulmen.
[N. C., 1899, Pl. XII. 5.]
ΜΟΨΕΙΩΝ or ΜΟΨΕΑ[T]ΩΝ The Lapith Mopsos contending with Cen- taur.
Æ .8

The reverse design resembles in several points one of the finest Par- thenon Metopes in the British Museum (B. M. C., Sculp., I. p. 136, no. 310).


Oetaei. There is said to have been a city called Oeta near the mountain of the same name, the scene of the death of Herakles. The coins of the Oetaei may be compared with those of Heracleia Trachinia.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of lion, spear in mouth. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 9.] ΟΙΤΑΩΝ (retrogr.) Herakles naked to front, holding club transversely; his head is wreathed.
AR ½ Dr.
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 10.] ΟΙΤΑ Bow and quiver.
AR Obol.
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 11.] ΟΙΤΑΩΝ Spear and knife.
Æ .6


B.C. 196-146.

On the liberation of Thessaly we hear of the κοινον των Οιταιεων, and the coinage begins again on the Attic standard.

Lion’s head, l.
[N. C., 1900, Pl. XIII. 12.]
ΟΙΤΑΙΩΝ Herakles naked to front, holding club downwards and lion- skin; head wreathed.
AR Diob. 119 grs.

The smaller silver coins resemble those of the previous period, but are of inferior style. Herakles was worshipped by the Oetaei under the name Κορνοπιων, or the ‘Locust-scarer’ (Strab. xiii. p. 613).

Bronze coins of the type of the Aetolian federal money, the spear-head and jaw-bone of the Kalydonian boar, are also known (B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VII. 14).


Orthe (Perrhaebia), (Pliny iv. 9, sect. 16).

BRONZE. Circ. B.C. 350-200.
Head of Athena.
[N. C., 1890, 316.]
ΟΡΘΙΕΙΩΝ Forepart of horse spring- ing from rock, on which are trees; the whole in wreath.
Æ .8 and .6
Head of Athena.
[N. C., 1892, Pl. I. 14.]
ΟΡΘΙ Trident, the whole in wreath.
Æ .7


Peirasiae (Thessaliotis), otherwise called Asterlum, near the junction of the Apidanus and the Enipeus.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Athena, facing.
[Annali dell’ Inst., 1866, Monum., viii. Pl. XXXII. 5.]
ΠΕΙΡΑΣΙΕ[ΩΝ] Horseman.
AR Trihemiobol.

Pelinna (Histiaeotis), east of Tricca, near the northern bank of the Peneius.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Horseman galloping or spearing pros- trate foe.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VIII. 1-4.]
ΠΕΛΙΝΝΑΙ, ΠΕΛΙΝΝΑ, &c. Warrior with spear and shield in attitude of combat, sometimes looking back as if in retreat.
AR Dr., ½ Dr., and smaller
coins, also Æ .6

Circ. B.C. 300-200.
Veiled female head. ΠΕΛΙΝΝΑΩΝ or ΠΕΛΙΝΝΑΙΕΩΝ Armed horseman.
Æ .8-.55
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VIII. 5, 6.]
Thessalian horseman. [B. M.] ΠΕΛΙΝΝΑΙΩ[Ν] Veiled woman stand- ing, holding casket, which she is opening.
Æ .7
Id. [Photiades Cat., 135.] ΠΕΛΙΝΝΑΕΩ[Ν] Woman seated, open- ing casket.
Æ .6



Perrhaebi. These people were descendants of the original occupants of Thessaly, and in historical times inhabited the region between Mt. Olympus and the river Peneius. Their chief town was probably the Homeric Oloösson near Tempe.

Circ. B.C. 480-400.

Inscr., ΠΕ or ΠΕΡΑ on reverse; Silver. Drachms, ½ Drachms, Tri- hemiobols, and Obols.
Thessalian restraining bull or forepart of bull. Galloping horse or forepart of horse in incuse square.
AR Dr. and ½ Dr.
Horseman. Athena (?) or Thetis seated, holding helmet in incuse square.
AR Obol.
Horse galloping. Athena running with spear and shield in incuse square.
AR Obol.
Forepart of bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VIII. 7-11.]
Horse’s head in incuse square.
AR Obol.
Head of Athena. [Fox, i. Pl. VII. 70.] ΠΕ Forepart of horse.
AR ½ Obol.

B.C. 196-146.
Head of Zeus. [B. C. H., V. 295.] ΠΕΡΡΑΙΒΩΝ Hera seated.
AR 57 grs.
Id.       „    Id.
Æ .8
Head of Hera veiled, facing.       „    Zeus naked, standing to front, holding fulmen and resting on sceptre.
Æ .8
Beardless male head r.
[B. C. H., V. 296.]
ΠΕΡΡΑΙΒΩΝ Female head r., in in- cuse square.
Æ .8

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Petthali. A Thessalian people known only from an inscription and from the following bronze coins:—

Circ. B.C. 350.
Head of Zeus, r., laur.
[Zeit. f. Num., xvi. 91; xvii. 235.]
ΠΕΤΘΑΛΩΝ (retrogr.) Forepart of horse springing from rock, l.
Æ .55
Id. [B. M.] Inscr. not retrogr. Same type but to r., and beneath horse, trident.
Æ .55

For other coins attributed to the Petthali see Imhoof, Rev. Suisse, Tom. XIV.

Peumata. (Phthiotis ?). See U. Köhler, Zeit. f. Num., xii. p. 110.

Head of nymph bound with oak-wreath.
[Zeit. f. Num., xii. p. 111.]
ΠΕΥΜΑΤΙΩΝ written round the large monogram of the Achaeans ΑΧ in field, helmet.
Æ .5

If the silver coins assigned by Gardner to the Phthiotan Achaeans belong in reality to the early Achaean League (N. C., 1902, 324); there would seem to be no cogent reason why Peumata should be assigned to Phthiotis. It is noticeable that the symbol, a helmet, is present also on the silver coins. (See Achaean League, infra.)


Phacium (Pelasgiotis), near the banks of the Peneius, between Atrax and Pharcadon.

Head of nymph crowned with corn.
[B. M. C. Thes., Pl. XXXI. 7.]
Æ .8

Phalanna (Perrhaebia), a few miles north-west of Lariassa, on the left bank of the Peneius. Cf. Steph. Byz. Φαλαννα, πολις Περραιβιας απο Φαλαννης της Τυρους Θυγατρος.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Young male head with short hair.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VIII. 12-14.]
ΦΑΛΑΝΝΑΙΩΝ Bridled horse.
AR Dr., ½ Dr., and Trihemiobol.
Hekate holding two torches seated on lion, r.; beneath ΠΟ.
[Ashburnham Cat., 101.]
ΦΑΛΑΝΝΑΙΩΝ Hunter with flying chlamys, wielding javelin, running, r., with hound beside him.
AR 1½ Obol., 24 grs.
Young male head.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. VIII. 15, 16.]
ΦΑΛΑΝΝΑΙΩΝ Head of Nymph Phalanna; hair in bag.
Æ .8
Helmeted head. [Imhoof Coll.] ΦΑΛΑΝΝΑΙΩΝ Horse.
Æ .5
....ΟΡΙΣ Head of Zeus (?), r.
[Leake, Num Hell., p. 88.]
ΦΑΛΑΝΝΑ Nymph Phalanna seated, with left hand extended towards a stork.
Æ .55


Phaloria (Histiaeotis), in the west of Thessaly. The only known coins are the following:—

Circ. B.C. 302-286.
Head of Apollo laur.
[Brit. Mus.; cf. Z. f. N., xvii. 236.]
ΦΑΛΡΙΑΣΤΩΝ Apollo (or Arte- mis?), seated on a rock, holding in r. arrow, and in l. a long branch of bay.
Æ .85
Head of Athena facing. [Hunter, I, Pl. XXX. 10; see N. C., 1890, p. 187, node.] ΦΑΛΩΡ Wolf running.
Æ .75

Pharcadon (Histiaeotis), on the left bank of the Peneius, between Pelinna and Atrax. The silver coins of this town all belong to the fifth century.

Circ. B.C. 480-400.
Youth restaining forepart of bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IX. 1.]
ΦΑΡΚΑΔΟ Forepart of horse in incuse square.
AR ½ Dr.
Free horse walking. [Pl. IX. 2.] ΦΑΡΚΑΔΟΝΙΟΝ Athena standing.
AR Obol.
Bull’s head. [Berlin.] ΦΑR Horse’s head. Symbol: trident.
AR Obol.
Id. [Paris.] ΦΑ Ram.
AR ½ Obol.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of nymph l.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IX. 4a.]
ΦΑΡΚΑΔ (retrogr.) Horseman.
Æ .65
Horse feeding. [Ibid., Pl. IX. 5.] ΦΑΡΚΑΔΟΝΙΩΝ Crescent and star.
Æ .65



Pharsalus (Thessaliotis), on the left bank of the Enipeus, about twenty-five miles south of Larissa, one of the most important cities of Thessaly, and famous as the scene of the great victory of Caesar over Pompey. Pharsalus began to strike money about the time of the Persian wars, and continued to do so, perhaps without intermission, down to the reign of Philip of Macedon.

Circ. B.C. 480-344.
Head of Athena of archaic style.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IX. 6-8.]
ΦΑR or ΦΑΡ Horse’s head in incuse square.
AR ½ Dr. and Obol.

Circ. B.C. 400-344.

coin image
FIG. 175.
Head of Athena of fine style in close- fitting crested helmet (Fig. 175).
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. IX. 9-12.]
ΦΑΡΣ or ΦΑΡ Horseman holding over shoulder, or brandishing weapon; or, on ½ Dr., Horse’s head.
AR Dr., ½ Dr., &c. and Æ .7

During the period of finest art the silver coins frequently bear abbreviated names of magistrates, ΤΗ, ΙΠ, ΤΕΛΕΑΝΤΟ (retrogr.), &c.

Head of Athena facing, in triple crested helmet, between spear and shield.
[B. M. C., Thes., p. 45.]
ΦΑΡΣΑ or ΦΑΡΣΑΛΙΩΝ Horseman brandishing weapon; behind him, sometimes, a foot soldier carrying a second weapon over his shoulder, and in front an enemy facing him on foot.
Æ .85

The weapon on these coins resembles a crooked club (pedum) and is called by Th. Reinach (Corolla Num., p. 270) a ‘mace of arms'.

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Pherae (Pelasgiotis). Next to Larissa, Pherae was the foremost town in Thessaly, and one of the most ancient. It was situated a little to the west of Mt. Pelion. From a rocky height on the northern side of the city gushed forth the famous fountain Hypereia, which is represented on the coins as a stream of water flowing from the mouth of a lion’s head, and perhaps also, under the form of the horse of Poseidon, issuing from the face of a rock, or bounding along with loose rein; but as such horse- types are frequent throughout Thessaly it is safer to regard them at Pherae also as referring directly to the worship of Poseidon, who, by striking the rock with his trident, created the first horse (Lucan, Phars. vi. 396), or to the games held in his honour.

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Pherae began to coin money quite as early as, if not earlier than, the Persian wars. Among the chief varieties are the following:—

Circ. B.C. 480-450.
Thessalian subduing bull.
[B. M. C. Thes., Pl. X. 1, 2.]
PhiΕRΑΙ, PhiΕΑΙΟN Horse with loose rein, a lion’s head fountain pouring a jet of water across his back; all in incuse square.
AR Dr.
Similar, but forepart of bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 3.]
PhiΕRΑ Forepart of horse springing from rock in incuse square.
AR ½ Dr.
Similar, beneath, ΧΑΡ (?).
[N. C., 1891, Pl. IV. 6.]
PhiΕR Naked Rider on forepart of horse, in incuse square.
AR ½ Dr.
Head and neck of bull clasped by bull- fighter. [Brit. Mus.] PhiΕRΑ &c. Horse’s head in incuse square.
AR Obol.

The following archaic coins, with a few others of Methydrium (?), Larissa, and Scotussa (Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIII. 7, 15, 21-4, 26-8), form together a distinct group, differentiated from other Thessalian coins by the transposition of the incuse square, which is placed diagonally in rela- tion to the types. It is somewhat doubtful whether the coins of this gruop, reading PhiΕ, with the addition of another syllable ΘΑ, ΤΑ, &c. (see Babelon, Traité, p. 1030), are rightly assigned to Pherae.

Forepart of horse springing from rock; or horse’s head.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 4-7.]
PhiΕ, PhiΕ ΘΑ, or PhiΕ ΤΑ, Corn-grain with its husk, in deep incuse square.
AR Dr., ½ Dr., and Obol.
Horse’s head. [Ibid., Pl. X. 8.] PhiΕ ΘΑ Club in incuse square.
AR Obol.
Forepart of horse springing from rock.
[Photiades Cat., 162.]
ΦΕ ΘΑ between the prongs of an ornamented trident, in incuse square.
AR Dr.

Fourth century B.C.
Head of nymph Hyperia, crowned with reeds, r.; behind, lion’s head spouting water. [Photiades Cat., 165.] ΦΕΡΑΙΟΥΝ Hekate with two torches riding on galloping horse. In field, wreath containing name ΑΣΤΟΜΕ- ΔΟΝ.
AR Dr.
Head of Hekate, l.; behind, torch.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 15.]
ΦΕΡΑΙΟΥΝ Nymph Hypereia standing, placing her hand on lion’s head foun- tain, beneath witch, wreath inscribed ΑΣΤΟ.
AR ½ Dr.
Head of Hekate to r., in myrtle (?) wreath; in front, torch.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 9.]
ΦΕΡΑΙΟΝ Lion’s head fountain; below, fish.
Æ .65
Lion’s head. [Ibid., Pl. X. 10.] ΦΕΡΑΙΟΝ Hekate with torches riding on horse.
Æ .55

Circ. B.C. 300 or earlier.
Head of Hekate facing, her r. hand holding torch.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 16. Æ.]
ΦΕΡΑΙΩΝ Hekate holding torch, riding on galloping horse; to l., lion’s head fountain.
AR ½ Dr. (B. M.) Æ .85

No coins are known with the name of the famous Jason of Pherae, but of the tyrant Alexander, who obtained the supreme power soon after Jason’s death, we possess valuable numismatic records.

Alexander of Pherae. B.C. 369-357.

coin image
FIG. 176.

Head of Hekate, facing, her r. hand holding torch.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 11.]
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ or ΑΛΕΞΑΝΑΡΕΙ- ΟΣ Armed horseman prancing; beneath, and on horse’s flank, a bipennis (Fig. 176).
AR Didrachm.
Head of Hekate in profile; in front, her hand holding torch.
[Ibid., Pl. X. 12.]
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Lion’s head.
AR Dr.
Head of Artemis Ennodia r. laur. Inscr., ΕΝΝΟΔΙΑΣ.
[Ibid., Pl. X. 13.]
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ or ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ Lion’s head [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 13].
AR Dr.
Young male head in petasos.
[N. C., 1894, Pl. IV. 9.]
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΟΝ Leg and foot of horse.
AR Dr.
Wheel. [B. M.] ΑΛΕ Bipennis.
AR Obol.

With regard to the various forms of the inscr. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΟΣ, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ, and ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΟΝ, see Mac- donald, Coin Types, p. 127. In these instances the denominations of the coins are probably to be understood, e.g. στατηρ, δραχημ, ημιδραχμον or τριοβολον, &c.

Young male head, in petasos. [B. M.] ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Leg and foot of horse.
Æ .5
Forepart of rushing bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. X. 14.]
      „    Forepart of horse.
Æ .5

The cultus of Artemis Ennodia was connected with that of Hekate. Under this name she was worshipped as the goddess of the wayside or the cross-roads (Regling, Journ. Int., 1905, 175). The bipennis as an adjunct on the reverse reminds us of the special worship paid by Alexander of Pherae to the Dionysos of Pagasae, who was surnamed Πελεκυς, from the sacrificial axe used in sacrificing to him. Cf. Simonides (apud Athen. 10, 84), who calls the axe Διωνυσοιο ανακτος βουφονον θεραποντα. See the Schol. on Hom. Il. xxiv. 428 Θεοπομπος φησιν Αλεξανδρον Φεραιον Διονυσον τον εν Παγασαις ος εκαλειτο Πελεκυς ευσεβειν διαφορως. The double- axe also occurs as an adjunct symbol on early coins of Larissa (p. 298 supra).

Teisiphonus. B.C. 357-352 (?).

This tyrant was one of the brothers of Thebe, the wife of Alexander, who usurped the tyranny after Alexander’s assassination.

Forepart of rushing bull.
[Rev. Num., 1853, Pl. XIV. 10.]
ΤΕΙΣΙΦΟΝΟΥ Forepart of horse.
Æ .5

Proërna. (Thessaliotis).

Circ. B.C. 300-200 (?).
Female head facing. [B. M. and Imhoof Coll.] ΠΡΩΕΡΝΙΩΝ Demeter standing, hold- ing ears of corn (?) and torch (?)
Æ .8


Rhizus (Magnesia ?). This place is mentioned by Strabo (ix. pp. 436, 443) and Steph. Byz. :— Ριζους πολις Θεσσαλιας το εθνικον Ριζουντιος. According to Strabo it was one of eight neighbouring πολιχναι, whose inhabitants were removed by Demetrius Poliorcetes (B.C. 290) to his new foundation Demetrias. Judging from the following coins, Rhizus must have been of greater importance in the fourth century B.C.

Before circ. B.C. 344.
Head of Zeus laur., resembling in style the coins of Philip of Macedon.
[N. C., 1896, Pl. VII. 4.]
ΡΙΖΟΥΣ Vine-branch with grapes and letter Λ: almost identical with coin of Eurea.
Æ .8
Head of Artemis r.
[N. C., 1900, Pl. I. 7.]
ΡΙΖΟΥΣ between the ten rays of a star.
Æ .65
Id. [B. M.] ΡΙΖΟΥΣΩ[Ν] Similar.
Æ .55


Scotussa. (Pelasgiotis), between Pherae and Pharsalus. The coins of this town are of three periods.

Circ. B.C. 480-400.
Forepart of horse.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 1.]
ΣΚΟ Grain of corn with husk, in deep diagonally placed incuse square.
AR Dr. and ½ Dr.

These coins are identical in type with others of similar fabric reading ΜΕΘΥ (Methydrium ?), ΦΕ ΘΑ and ΦΕ ΤΑ (Pherae ?).

Circ. B.C. 400-367.
Head of Herakles bearded.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 2.]
ΣΚΟ Forepart of horse feeding.
AR ½ Dr.
Head of young Herakles laur., with lion-skin round neck. ΣΚΟΤΟΥΣΣΑΙΩΝ Demeter (?) stand- ing to front, resting on torch (?)
AR 1½ Obol.
Head of young Herakles. ΣΚΟ Forepart of horse feeding.
Æ .55
Head of young Herakles.
[N. C., 1902, Pl. XV. 8.]
ΣΚΟ Vine-branch with grapes.
Æ .6
Female head to front, with flowing locks, as on coins of Larissa.
[B. M.]
ΣΚΟΤΟΥΣΣΑΙΩΝ Vine-branch with grapes; cf. coins of the same type, at Eurea and Rhizus.
Æ .85

In B.C. 367 Scotussa was treacherously seized by Alexander of Pherae, and ceased for some time to strike coins.

B.C. 300-200, or later.
Female head (Artemis ?) facing.
[N. C., 1890, Pl. XIX. 7.]
ΣΚΟ[ΤΟΥΣΣΑΙΩΝ] Poseidon seated on rock with trident and dolphin.
AR ½ Dr.
Head of bearded Herakles. ΣΚΟΤΟΥ[Σ]ΣΑΙΩΝ Club [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 8].
Æ .85
Head of Ares (?) in close-fitting helmet with feather. ΣΚΟΤΟΥΣΣΑΙΩΝ Horse prancing [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XXXI. 9].
Æ .75


Thebae (Phthiotis). There are no early coins of this town; all those that are known certainly belong to the time of Demetrius.

Circ. B.C. 302-286.
Head of Demeter, crowned with corn and, usually, veiled.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 3.]
ΘΗΒΑΙΩΝ and (on Æ) mon. ΑΧ. Protesilaos leaping ashore from prow of galley.
AR ½ Dr., and Æ .85 and .55
Similar. [B. M.] ΘΗΒΑΙΩΝ Free horse walking r., beneath ΑΧ.
Æ .7

Protesilaos was a native of this part of Thessaly, and at the neighbour- ing Phylace there was a temple sacred to him, mentioned by Pindar (Isthm. i. 84):—

Πρωτεσιλα το τεον δ’ ανδρων Αχαιον
εν Φυλακα τεμενος ουμβαλλομαι

For other varieties see Zeit. f. N., i. p. 175.


Tricca (Histiaeotis) was named after the fountain-nymph Trikka, a daughter of the river-god Peneios, on the left bank of whose stream the city stood. The town is mentioned by Homer as subject to Podaleirios and Machaon, sons of Asklepios, who led the Triccaeans in the Trojan war. At Tricca was the most ancient and illustrious of all the temples of Asklepios in Greece, and to this sacred place the sick had recourse from all parts (Strab. viii. 374; ix. 437).

Circ. B.C. 480-400.
Thessalian subduing bull or forepart of bull.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 7, 12.]
ΤΡΙΚΚΑ, ΤΡΙΚΚΑΙΟΝ, later ΤΡΙΚ- ΚΑΙΩΝ Incuse square containing forepart of horse.
AR ½ Dr.
Horseman. [B. M.] ΤΡΙΚΚΑΙΟ Nymph Trikka seated, holding phiale and mirror.
AR Trihemiobol.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 8, 10, 11.]
ΤΡΙΚΚΑΙΟΝ Nymph playing ball, or leaning on column and extending hand towards swan, or opening cista, or sacrificing at altar.
AR Obols.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 9.]
ΤΡΙΚΚΑΙΟΝ Athena running.
AR Obol.


Circ. B.C. 400-344.
Head of Nymph Trikka. ΤΡΙΚΚΑΙΩΝ Warrior Podaleirios or Machaon advancing.
AR .65
Id. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 13.] ΤΡΙΚΚΑΙΩΝ Asklepios seated, feeding serpent with bird, or resting on crooked staff.
Æ .8


Thessali. In B.C. 196, after the battle of Cynoscephalae, the Thessali, the Perrhaebi, and the Magnetes, were proclaimed free by Flamininus, whereupon the Thessali instituted a federal currency, probably striking their coins at Larissa.

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The Magnetes at the same time began to issue silver and bronze at their capital Demetrias, as did also the Perrhaebi at Oloosson. All these coinages came to an end in B.C. 146, when Thessaly was incorporated in the Roman province of Macedon.

B.C. 196-146.

coin image
FIG. 177.

Head of Zeus crowned with oak. Behind, sometimes, the name of the Strategos of the League in the genitive case. (Among the names of Strategi whose dates are known are Androsthenes, B.C. 187, and Nicocrates, B.C. 182.) ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ The Thessalian Athena Itonia (Paus. x. 1. 10) in fighting attitude, usually accompanied by the names of two magistrates, of which one is often in the genitive (Fig. 177).
AR Double Victoriatus = 1½ Denarii,
wt. 100-86 grs.
Head of Apollo with name of the Strategos. ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ Demeter with torch in each hand.
AR Victoriatus = ¾ denarius, 47-41 grs.
Head of Apollo with name or mono- gram of the Strategos. ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ Athena Itonia and magistrate’s name [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. I. 3]
AR Attic Dr.
Head of Athena Itonia.
[B. M. C., Thes, Pl. I. 4, 6.]
AR Attic Dr.
Head of Zeus in oak-wreath.
[B. M. C., Thes., Pl. I. 5.]
Athena Itonia and magistrate’s name.
AR Attic ½ Dr.

The bronze coins resemble the Drachms, having on the obverse a head of Apollo or Athena, and on the reverse Athena fighting, or a horse (R. Weil, Zeit. f. N., i. 177 sqq.). There are, however, a few exceptional types among which the following may be mentioned:—

Head of Zeus.
[N. C., 1898, Pl. XIX. 1.]
ΘΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ and magistrate’s name ....ΤΡ..... ΕΥΒΙΟΤΟΥ Centaur with bull’s tail galloping and seizing by the bridle a rearing horse.
Æ 1.
Head of Artemis with quiver at shoulder.
[Ibid., Pl. XIX. 2.]
[ΘΕΣΣΑ] ΛΩΝ ΝΙΚΟΚΡΑΤΗ[Σ] ΕΥΒΙΟΤΟΥ Demeter running with two torches.
Æ .85

Imperial Times.

Caesar, after the battle of Pharsalia, conferred liberty once more on the Thessalians, and henceforth Thessaly, even after its incorporation in the Roman province of Achaia, B.C. 27, was treated as a separate κοινον, headed by a strategos, and with a concilium which met at Larissa. The Imperial coins from Augustus to Hadrian bear the name of the strategos, and in the reign of Augustus usually the inscr ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗΩΝ SΕΣΣΑΛΩΝ. From M. Aurelius to Gallienus the coins read ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΘΕCCΑΛΩΝ, the name of the strategos being omitted, and marks of value usually added, Γ, or Δ (= 3 or 4 assaria) (B. M. C., Thes., pp. 6-9). Among the types may be mentioned—Head of Achilles, with inscr. ΑΧΙΛΛΕΥC (see Th. Reinach, in Corolla Num., pp. 266 fr.), Apollo Kitharoedos, Athena Itonia, Nike, Asklepios, &c.



Head of Poseidon, laur. ΙΚΙΩΝ Trident and dolphins. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 134]
Æ .65

Peparethus (Scopelos), an island lying off the coast of the Thessalian Magnesia, widely known for its excellent wine (Pliny, H. N. xiv. 7. 76), was said to have been colonized by Staphylos, son of Dionysos and Ariadne. There were three towns in the island, Peparethus, Selinus, and Panormus, with probably a single mint at Peparethus. Wroth (J. H. S., 1907, 90 sqq.) has proved that, circ. B.C. 500 to 480, Peparethus struck the tetradrachms of Euboïc weight, some of which were formerly attributed by me to Cyrene. The types are as follows, and their variety suggests trade relations with other cities, chiefly perhaps in Chalcidice and Cos, where some of them have been found.

Large bunch of grapes.
[J. H. S., 1907, Pl. IV. 1.]
Running winged figure (Agon ?) in incuse square.
AR 261 grs.
Id. [N. C., 1891, Pl. I. 3] Head of bearded Herakles in incuse square.
AR 265 grs.
Large bunch of grapes between two small bunches.
[J. H. S., 1907, Pl. IV. 5.]
AR 256 grs.
Id. [Ibid., Pl. IV. 4, 6.] Crested Corinthian helmet in incuse square.
AR 253.4 grs.
Id. [Rev. Suisse, XIV. Pl. VI. 18.] Id.
AR Didr. 125 grs.
Id. With dolphins swimming round grapes. [J. H. S., 1907, Pl. IV. 7.] Four ivy-leaves in cruciform pattern with Theta in centre, in incuse square.
AR 273 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. IV. 8.] Dolphin-rider in incuse square.
AR 259 grs.
ΠΕ Bunch of grapes.
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 2.]
Dionysos or Staphylos seated l., holding kantharos and thyrsos in incuse square.
Æ (plated with AR) 220.3 grs.

During the greater part of the fifth century B.C. Peparethus seems to have been subordinate to Athens, and no coins were issued in the island; but the following bronze pieces show that in the fourth century B.C. Dionysos was still the chief divinity of the Peparethians.

After circ. B.C. 350.
Head of young or bearded Dionysos in ivy-wreath. [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 14, 15.] ΠΕ, ΠΕΠΑ, &c., Kantharos wreathed with vine.
Æ .65-.5
Similar. [Ibid., Pl. XI. 16.] ΠΕΠΑ Thyrsos and cross-piece of torch, combined.
Æ .45
Head of Athena. [B. M.] ΠΕΠΑ Bunch of grapes.
Æ .55

Svoronos (Journ. int. d'arch. num., I. p. 86) also gives to Peparethus the uncertain coins, Obv. Young male head in ivy-wreath, Rev. ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ Amphora, assigned by Imhoof (Mon. gr., 65) to Apollonia Mygdoniae (see supra, p. 204). With these he would also class the coins, Obv. Head of Apollo laur., Rev. ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣΙΑΤΡΟΥ Apollo standing with branch and bow, attributed by Pick, Jahrb. arch. Inst., xiii. 169, to Apollonia Pontica.

Imperial Times.
Bust of young Dionysos. ΠΕΠΑΡΗΘΙWΝ Palm branch in kantharos.
Æ .75
Athena Itonia armed. ΠΕΠΑ... Owl.
Æ .55

Coins also exist with the heads of Augustus and of Commodus (Hunter Cat., I. Pl. XXX. 20).


Sciathus. Bronze coins of circ. B.C. 350.

Head of Apollo, or of Hermes; or Gorgon-head, facing. ΣΚΙΑΘΙ or ΣΚ Caduceus [B. M. C., Thes., Pl. XI. 17-19].
AR .65-.5